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Special Issue "Sustainability in Electrical Engineering"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Engineering and Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Nikos E. Mastorakis

Technical University of Sofia 8, Kliment Ohridski blvd, Sofia building 2, office 12504, tel 2394, Sofia 1000, Bulgaria
E-Mail
Interests: multidimensional systems; computational methods for operation of electric railway systems; applied mathematics for environmental xenobiotic analysis; neural networks
Guest Editor
Dr. Cornelia A. Bulucea

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Craiova, Craiova 200440, Romania
E-Mail
Phone: 0040724751952
Interests: synchronous generators for electric power systems; generator circuit breakers; electric traction motors for electric railway vehicles; applied mathematics for pollutant analysis in electric power plants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The concepts of sustainability need to be addressed along with the understanding that sustainable development is not about certificates or awards, but instead it is about the vitality of life on Earth. Future needs for sustainable development are likely to include a change in human values through education, and an industrial metabolism shift through responsible practical actions. A sustainable industrial metabolism, integrating technical and ecological aspects is one of the greatest challenges of humanity within the present industrial world. In line with this idea, the performance of sustainable electrical processes, systems and devices should be addressed. Research articles focusing on sustainability in electrical engineering and related topics are welcome for this Special Issue.

Topics of Interest:

  • Sustainability of Electric Power Systems
  • Applied Mathematics for Energy and Environment
  • Computational Methods in Electrical and Environmental Engineering
  • Sustainable Electric Railway Systems
  • Electric Equipment and Techniques for Industrial Waste Treatment
  • Mathematical Models to Correlate Biomedicine and Electrical Engineering
  • Strategic Management for Sustainability in Electrical Engineering
  • Energy and Exergy Efficiency of Industrial Systems
  • Renewable Energy Systems

Prof. Dr. Nikos E. Mastorakis
Dr. Cornelia A. Bulucea
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

References:

  1. Bulucea, C.A.; Rosen, M.A.; Nicola, D.A.; Mastorakis, N.E. Synoptic Approach of Synchronous Generator on Disconnection Processes in Electric Power Systems Comprising Generator Circuit Breakers. Wseas Transactions Power Syst. 2014, 9, 219–231.
  2. Bulucea, C.A.; Rosen, M.A.; Nicola, D.A.; Mastorakis, N.E. Approaching the Processes in the Generator Circuit Breaker at Disconnection through Sustainability Concepts. Sustainability 2013, 5, 1161–1176.
  3. Bulucea, C.A.; Rosen, M.A.; Mastorakis, N.E.; Brindusa, C. Approaching Resonant Absorption of Environmental Xenobiotics Harmonic Oscillation by Linear Structures. Sustainability 2012, 4, 561–573.
  4. Bulucea, C.A.; Rosen, M.A.; Nicola, D.A.; Mastorakis, N.E. Utilizing the Exergy Concept to Address Environmental Challenges of Electric Systmes. Entropy 2012, 14, 1894–1914.
  5. Bulucea, C.A.; Nicola, D.A.; Mastorakis, N.E.; Cismaru, D.C. Three-Phase Transformer Dynamic Regimes Modelling as Targeted Approach in Industrial Ecology. In Proceedings of the 5th IASME/WSEAS International Conference on ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, 23–25 February 2010; pp. 234–241.
  6. Rosen, M.A.; Bulucea, C.A. Using Exergy to Understand and Improve the Efficiency of Electrical power Technologies. Entropy 2009, 11, 820–835.
  7. Mastorakis, N.E.; Bulucea, C.A.; Nicola, D.A. Modeling of Three-phase Induction Motors in Dynamic Regimes According to an Ecosystem Pattern. In Proceedings of the 13th WSEAS International Conference on Systems (CSCC’09), Rodos (Rhodes) Island, Greece, 22–24 July 2009; pp. 338–346
  8. Rosen, M.A.; Bulucea, C.A. Assessing Electrical Systems via Exergy: a Dualist View Incorporating Technical and Environmental Dimensions. In Proceedings of the 6th WSEAS International Conference on Engineering Education (EE’09), Rodos (Rhodes) Island, Greece, 22–24 July 2009; pp.116–123.
  9. Mastorakis, N.E.; Bulucea, C.A.; Nicola, D.A. Assessment of Thre-phase Induction Motors Dynamic Regims Following Ecosystem Patterns. Wseas Transactions Circuits Syst. 2009, 8, 651–661.
  10. Bulucea C.A; Nicola, D.A.; Manolea, G.; Brandusa, C.; Cismaru. D. Sustainability Concepts in Environmental and Engineering Education. Wseas Transactions Adv. Eng. Educ. 2008, 5, 447–458.
  11. Bulucea, C.A.; Nicola, D.A.; Brandusa, C.; Cismaru, D. Energy and Exergy Efficiencies in Urban Electric Transportation Systems. Wseas Transactions Environ. Dev. 2008, 4, 247–259.
  12. Bulucea, C.A.; Brandusa, C. Experimental Characterization of Environmental Impacts from Underground Electric Metro in Braking Regime. In Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS, HIGH VOLTAGES, ELECTRIC MACHINES (POWER’07), Venice, Italy, 21–23 November 2007; pp.254–255.

Keywords

  • electric systems
  • energy efficiency
  • environmental stewardship
  • mathematical models
  • sustainable development

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Lithium-Ion Batteries: Thermal Behaviour Investigation of Unbalanced Modules
Sustainability 2015, 7(7), 8374-8398; doi:10.3390/su7078374
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 21 June 2015 / Accepted: 23 June 2015 / Published: 29 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4865 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the thermal behaviour of an unbalanced battery module made of large lithium iron phosphate cylindrical cells of 18 Ah nominal capacity is investigated during its discharge with 18 A, 54 A and 90 A currents. For this study, several cells
[...] Read more.
In this paper, the thermal behaviour of an unbalanced battery module made of large lithium iron phosphate cylindrical cells of 18 Ah nominal capacity is investigated during its discharge with 18 A, 54 A and 90 A currents. For this study, several cells were assigned in the module to 5%, 10% and 20% initial depth of discharge (DoD). The thermal management of the cells in the module is achieved based on a forced air cooling. The computations of the temperature distribution inside the cells and the module are performed with a two-dimensional modelling approach. During the discharges, the cells with a non-zero initial DoD show a more pronounced temperature increase up to 5% compared to the reference cells. In the end of the three discharges, the highest temperatures 26.5 °C (18 A), 29.6 °C (54 A) and 32.3 °C (90 A), respectively, are reached for the cells with the highest initial DoD. For these cells, with the increase in the current rate, the highest amount of total heat exceeds 25 W. The reactive and the active heats are found to be the main contributors to the total heat generated by the cells. This study provides the effect of the initial DoD of the cells on the temperature development occurring in an unbalanced battery module during its discharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Electrical Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Agricultural Feedstock to Energy Conversion Rate on Bioenergy and GHG Emissions
Sustainability 2015, 7(5), 5981-5995; doi:10.3390/su7055981
Received: 20 March 2015 / Revised: 7 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Taiwan is eager to develop renewable energy because it is vulnerable to energy price distortion and ocean level rise. Previous studies show bioenergy technologies can be applied mutually, but pay little attention on feedstocks to energy conversion rate, which has potential influences on
[...] Read more.
Taiwan is eager to develop renewable energy because it is vulnerable to energy price distortion and ocean level rise. Previous studies show bioenergy technologies can be applied mutually, but pay little attention on feedstocks to energy conversion rate, which has potential influences on policy making in renewable energy and environment. This study employs a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simultaneously simulate the market operations under various feedstocks to energy conversion rates, energy prices, and greenhouse gas (GHG) prices. The result shows pyrolysis-based electricity can reach up to 2.75 billion kWh annually, but it will be driven out at low conversion rate and high GHG price. Pyrolysis plus biochar application will be the optimal option in terms of carbon sequestration. Market valuation on potential threats of extreme weather could have substantial influences on ethanol and renewable electricity generation. To achieve aimed GHG emission reduction and/or bioenergy production, government intervention may be involved to align the market operation with Taiwan’s environmental policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Electrical Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Research on the Multi-Period Small-Signal Stability Probability of a Power System with Wind Farms Based on the Markov Chain
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4582-4599; doi:10.3390/su7044582
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 7 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
PDF Full-text (2001 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the traditional studies on small-signal stability probability of a power system with wind farms, the frequency of wind speed was often assumed to obey to some extent a particular probability distribution. The stability probability that is thus obtained, however, actually only reflects
[...] Read more.
In the traditional studies on small-signal stability probability of a power system with wind farms, the frequency of wind speed was often assumed to obey to some extent a particular probability distribution. The stability probability that is thus obtained, however, actually only reflects the power system stability characteristics on long time scales. In fact, there is a direct correlation between the change of wind speed and the current state of wind speed, resulting in the system stability characteristics in different time periods having a great difference compared with that of long time scales. However, the dispatchers are more concerned about the probability that the power system remains stable in the next period or after several periods, namely the stability characteristics of the power system in a short period or multi-period. Therefore, research on multi-period small-signal stability probability of a power system with wind farms has important theoretical value and practical significance. Based on the Markov chain, this paper conducted in-depth research on this subject. Firstly, the basic principle of the Markov chain was introduced, based on which we studied the uncertainty of wind power by adopting the transition matrix and the wind speed−power output transformation model and established the probability distribution model of multi-period wind power. Then the boundary-based small-signal stability probability evaluation method was used to establish an evaluation model of multi-period small-signal stability probability of power system with wind farms. Finally, taking the power system with two wind farms as an example, we analyzed its small-signal stability probability and studied the influence of the initial states of wind speed and different periods on the probability of stability. This study provides a new method and support for analyzing the small-signal stability probability of a power system with wind farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Electrical Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Modern High-Speed Trains with Traction Induction Motors
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3441-3459; doi:10.3390/su7033441
Received: 14 January 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2015 / Accepted: 16 March 2015 / Published: 20 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive
[...] Read more.
Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive systems are used with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) inverters and traction induction motors, these machines with appropriate controls can realize both traction and electric braking regimes for electric traction vehicles. In line with this idea, this paper addresses the operation sustainability of electric railway vehicles highlighting the chain of interactions among the main electric equipment on an electrically driven railway system supplied from an a.c. contact line: The contact line-side converter, the machine-side converter and the traction induction motor. The paper supports the findings that electric traction drive systems using induction motors fed by network-side converters and VVVF inverters enhance the sustainable operation of railway trains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Electrical Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Estimating Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panels with Low Concentration Located in Craiova, Romania
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 2644-2661; doi:10.3390/su7032644
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 February 2015 / Published: 4 March 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solar irradiation is one of the important parameters that should be taken into consideration for the design and utilization of a photovoltaic system. Usually, the input parameters of a photovoltaic system are solar irradiation, the ambient environment temperature and the wind speed, and
[...] Read more.
Solar irradiation is one of the important parameters that should be taken into consideration for the design and utilization of a photovoltaic system. Usually, the input parameters of a photovoltaic system are solar irradiation, the ambient environment temperature and the wind speed, and as a consequence most photovoltaic systems are equipped with sensors for measuring these parameters. This paper presents several mathematical models for solar irradiation assessment. The starting point is represented by the mathematical model of extraterrestrial irradiation, and resulting finally in the model for solar irradiation, absorbed by a low concentration photovoltaic panel. These estimating models of solar irradiation have been particularized for the Craiova, Romania, and have been verified through numerical simulation. Regarding terrestrial solar irradiation, four mathematical models have been adopted, namely Adnot, Haurwitz, Kasten and Empirical (EIM). Of these, the most appropriate for the Craiova location were the models Adnot and Empirical. Consequently, for the calculation of the solar irradiation absorbed by the photovoltaic (PV) panels with low concentration, these models have been taken into consideration. In this study, a comparative analysis was also carried out with respect to the solar irradiation absorbed by the PV panels without concentration and those with collectedness of the solar radiation. This analysis was based on the results of numerical simulation and experimental tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Electrical Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Stationary Charging Station Design for Sustainable Urban Rail Systems: A Case Study at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China
Sustainability 2015, 7(1), 465-481; doi:10.3390/su7010465
Received: 7 November 2014 / Accepted: 29 December 2014 / Published: 5 January 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In 2014, more than 43 cities in China were racing to construct their urban rail systems (including metro and light rail systems), recognizing that an urban rail system will be a good solution to the tough problems that they are faced with, including
[...] Read more.
In 2014, more than 43 cities in China were racing to construct their urban rail systems (including metro and light rail systems), recognizing that an urban rail system will be a good solution to the tough problems that they are faced with, including traffic congestion and PM2.5 air pollution. On 22 August 2012, the first electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage-type rail vehicle in the world was unveiled at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China. The EDLC rail system has been considered a promising sustainable urban rail system, which is expected to further improve the energy efficiency and to reduce environmental pollution. The first commercial EDLC tram produced by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co. has been applied at Guangzhou Metro Corp. recently. From the view point of scientific research, the system design and energy management of EDLC rail systems have been extensively studied in the literature, while the stationary charging station design for the EDLC energy storage-type urban rail vehicles has been rarely reported. Thus, the aim of this paper is to report a stationary charging station that has been successfully applied in the EDLC rail system produced by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Electrical Engineering)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Article
Title:
Sustainable Development from Renewable Energy and Policy Changes in China: A Mathematic Programming Approach
Author:
Chih-Chun Kung 1, Meng-Shiuh Chang 2
Affiliation:
1  Institute of Poyang Lake Eco-economics, Jiangxi University of Finance & Economics, Nanchang 330032, China
2   School of Public Finance and Taxation, Southwestern University of Finance & Economics, Chengdu 611130, China
Abstract:
The study aims to evaluate and explore the potential approach of sustainable development in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, China, especially in energy sector. Conventional and advanced techniques of renewable energy are modeled based on a price endogenous and partial equilibrium mathematical programming model that incorporates most of regional agricultural and forestry commodities. Local policies affecting the production and application of the renewable energy are also accommodated into the model. Economic factors such as input collection and processing costs, input/output transportation costs, and greenhouse gases trade prices are simulated under various levels to evaluate how economic components influence the sustainable development in renewable sector.

Type of Paper: Article
Title:
Lithium—Ion Batteries—Evaluation of Battery Performances
Author:
N. Omar1, Y. Firouz1, H. Gualous2, Jean-Marc Timmermans1, P. Van den Bossche1, Th. Coosemans1, J. Van Mierlo1
Affiliation:
1 Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium; E-Mail: noshomar@vub.ac.be
2
Université de Caen Basse Normandie, Cherbourg-Octeville, France
Abstract:
Motor vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine (ICE) are significant contributors to air pollutants and greenhouse gases linked to global climate change. Rising petroleum prices and environmental concerns have spurred the development of various types of clean energy transportation systems such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). In urban traffic, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electrically propelled vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particularly for a healthier living environment. PHEVs are particularly interesting, combining electrical and ICE drive and providing the user both a considerable pure electrical range and an extended range with the ICE. Low weight and volume and satisfying range, accelerating power and viable cycle life however are crucial requirements for the energy storage system, where only very few current battery technologies meeting these often concurrent objectives. In the proposed article, an extended benchmarking study has been carried out regarding the evolution of the electrical parameters of different commercial lithium-ion battery brands and chemistries. The investigated parameters are the energy density, power density, charge rate performances, discharge rate capabilities and energy efficiency at different operating conditions. Then, based on the hybrid pulse power characterization test, the parameters of the FreedomCar battery model during cycle life have been determined and evaluated. Based on the proposed study, the FreedomCar battery model has been optimized. The mentioned optimized model is able to predict the evolution of the varying parameters, which further can be related to the state of health of a battery. In addition, the proposed study will allow optimizing the battery materials from the changing model parameters.

Type of paper: Article
Title:
Controllable Power Flow for Sustainable Railway Systems
Author:
Morris Brenna, Federica Foiadelli, Dario Zaninelli
Affiliation:
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano
Abstract:
The idea proposed for the paper is an innovative electric conversion substations (ESS) based on the application of AC/DC switching converters using IGBT semiconductors with PWM modulation, instead of traditional diode bridge. The main advantages of this solution are the bidirectional power flow, the possibility to regulate the output DC voltage and the AC input power and the lower harmonic content due to the PWM modulation. This converter typology has been applied yet in heavy rail systems for example to generate single-phase voltage at special frequency (16.7 Hz in Europe, 25 Hz in USA) starting from three-phase 50-60 Hz industrial network. The idea to use these converters to supply traditional 3 kVDC railway network, allows to exploit the regenerative braking of the modern locomotives and passenger trains and therefore recovering this energy that is currently dissipated. This solution could be applied to traditional railway networks and also to subway and tramway applications, making the electric railway systems really sustainable.

Type of paper: Article
Title:
Assessment of Battery Thermal Management Designs Based on Liquid Cooling Method
Author:
Ahmadou Samba 1,2, Noshin Omar 1, Jean Marc Timmermans 1, Hamid Gualous 2, Odile Capron 1, Peter Van den Bossche 1, Joeri Van Mierlo 1
Affiliation:
1 MOBI, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussel, 1050, Belgium
2
LUSAC, Université de Caen Basse Normandie, Rue Louis Aragon, 50130 Cherbourg, France
Abstract:
Advanced research on rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries has allowed for large format and high-energy batteries to be largely used in Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). For transportation applications, beside limitations of driving range, long charging time is still considered as an important barrier for a wide use of BEVs. The increase of the charging current amplitude may however subject the battery to stressful situations and can significantly increase the temperature of the battery. These phenomena reduce the battery’s lifetime and performances and in worst-case scenario thermal runaway can occur. To avoid this, there is a need for an optimized thermal management in order to keep the battery in a safe and beneficial range of operating conditions. In this paper, advanced numerical models for battery thermal management system (BTMS) using liquid cooling system, have been developed. Cold plates with mini-channel are designed to cool a battery module consisting of 10 cells (45Ah LiFePO4 pouch format). A one-dimensional electrochemical model coupled with a three-dimensional lumped thermal model is used to describe the battery behaviour, and a one–dimensional non-isothermal flow model is coupled with a three-dimensional thermal model, using FEM, in order to estimate the dissipated heat from the battery module. After battery model validation, the performances of the battery module with different cold plate locations are investigated and compared in order to select the most suitable and efficient cooling arrangement. This allows to decrease the temperature rise of the battery module and to obtain a more uniform temperature distribution over the surfaces of the individual battery cells of the module. Finally, starting from the obtained best cooling architecture, the influence of liquid inlet (temperature and flow rate), current rate, initial temperature and electrical vehicle load profile are also analysed and discussed.

Type of Paper: Article
Title:
Lithium-ion Batteries—Thermal Investigation of a Staggered Battery Module Operating under Unbalanced Conditions
Authors:
Odile Capron 1,*, Ahmadou Samba 1,2, Noshin Omar 1, Thierry Coosemans 1, Peter Van den Bossche 1, Joeri Van Mierlo 1
Affiliation:
1 MOBI-Mobility, logistics and Automotive Technology Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Elsene, Belgium; E-Mail: ocapron@vub.ac.be; Tel. +322 629 33 96; Fax. +322 629 36 20
2 Laboratoire LUSAC, Université de Caen Basse Normandie, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville, France
Abstract:
A good cooling inside a battery module is important to avoid safety issues and avoid the development of too large internal temperature gradients. In this paper, the temperature distribution inside a staggered type of module made of large cylindrical lithium iron phosphate cells (of 18Ah nominal capacity) is analysed during a 90A constant discharge current. For the study of the pack under unbalanced operating conditions, several cells were initially assigned to 5% and 20% Depth of Discharge (DoD) difference compared to the others cells in the pack taken as reference. The analysis of the temperature distributions inside the module is based on the results obtained with a two-dimensional modelling approach. The simulations results highlight the influence of the initial DoD difference of the cells on their thermal behaviour. For both high and low pack temperatures, the internal and the surface regions of the cells with an initial DoD difference show higher and faster temperature increases in time compared to the rest of the cells. The simulations results also emphasize the need for a sufficient initial air velocity to ensure an improved ambient temperature uniformity along the complete length of the pack.
Keywords:
cylindrical cells; lithium iron phosphate; unbalanced module; temperature distribution; twodimensional modelling.

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