Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2014), Pages 11028-12087

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-64
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial 2014 Future Earth Young Scientists Conference on Integrated Science and Knowledge Co-Production for Ecosystems and Human Well-Being
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11553-11558; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111553
Received: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effective integration in science and knowledge co-production is a challenge that crosses research boundaries, climate regions, languages and cultures. Early career scientists are crucial in the identification of, and engagement with, obstacles and opportunities in the development of innovative solutions to complex and
[...] Read more.
Effective integration in science and knowledge co-production is a challenge that crosses research boundaries, climate regions, languages and cultures. Early career scientists are crucial in the identification of, and engagement with, obstacles and opportunities in the development of innovative solutions to complex and interconnected problems. On 25–31 May 2014, International Council for Science and International Social Science Council, in collaboration with the International Network of Next-Generation Ecologists and Institute for New Economic Thinking: Young Scholars Initiative, assembled a group of early career researchers with diverse backgrounds and research perspectives to reflect on and debate relevant issues around ecosystems and human wellbeing in the transition towards green economy, funded by the German Research Foundation, at Villa Vigoni, Italy. As a group of young scientists, we have come to a consensus that collaboration and communication among a diverse group of peers from different geographic regions could break down the barriers to multi-disciplinary research designed to solve complex global-scale problems. We also propose to establish a global systematic thinking to monitor global socio-ecological systems and to develop criteria for a “good” anthropocene. Finally, we aim to bridge gaps among research, the media, and education from a governance perspective linking with “sustainable development goals”. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Perceived Adverse Health Effects of Heat and Their Determinants in Deprived Neighbourhoods: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Nine Cities in Canada
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11028-11053; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111028
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 7 October 2014 / Published: 24 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study identifies several characteristics of individuals who report their physical and/or mental health as being adversely affected by summertime heat and humidity, within the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods of the nine largest cities of Québec (Canada). The study is cross-sectional by stratified representative
[...] Read more.
This study identifies several characteristics of individuals who report their physical and/or mental health as being adversely affected by summertime heat and humidity, within the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods of the nine largest cities of Québec (Canada). The study is cross-sectional by stratified representative sample; 3485 people were interviewed in their residence. The prevalence of reported impacts was 46%, mostly physical health. Female gender and long-term medical leave are two impact risk indicators in people <65 years of age. Low income and air conditioning at home are risk indicators at all ages. Results for having ≥2 diagnoses of chronic diseases, particularly for people self-describing as in poor health (odds ratio, OR<65 = 5.6; OR≥65 = 4.2), and perceiving daily stress, are independent of age. The prevalence of reported heat-related health impacts is thus very high in those inner cities, with notable differences according to age, stress levels and long-term medical leave, previously unmentioned in the literature. Finally, the total number of pre-existing medical conditions seems to be a preponderant risk factor. This study complements the epidemiologic studies based on mortality or severe morbidity and shows that the heat-related burden of disease appears very important in those communities, affecting several subgroups differentially. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Weather-Related Morbidity and Mortality: Risks and Responses)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Advancing Efforts to Achieve Health Equity: Equity Metrics for Health Impact Assessment Practice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11054-11064; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111054
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 24 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy
[...] Read more.
Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA) Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1) the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2) the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3) the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4) the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Impact Assessment: Realizing Its Potential)
Open AccessArticle Congener Profiles and Source-Wise Phase Partitioning Analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-Do Ambient Air, South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11065-11080; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111065
Received: 14 August 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 24 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The atmospheric concentrations and gas–particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan) in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17) of PCDDs/Fs and
[...] Read more.
The atmospheric concentrations and gas–particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan) in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m3 (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m3) and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m3 (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m3), respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m3 and 274.2 pg·m3, respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle–gas partition coefficient Kp (m3·ug−1) and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°). The slope (m) values for log–log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle–gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies) was the dominant source for PCBs. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Two-Stage Approach for Medical Supplies Intermodal Transportation in Large-Scale Disaster Responses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11081-11109; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111081
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 27 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a two-stage approach for the “helicopters and vehicles” intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs) and assign
[...] Read more.
We present a two-stage approach for the “helicopters and vehicles” intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs) and assign medial aid points (MAPs) to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i) More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii) It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii) The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparedness and Emergency Response)
Open AccessArticle Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11121-11131; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111121
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 27 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed
[...] Read more.
222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration. Full article
Open AccessArticle Beginning a Partnership with PhotoVoice to Explore Environmental Health and Health Inequities in Minority Communities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11132-11151; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111132
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 2 October 2014 / Published: 27 October 2014
PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research informs action, but the challenge is its translation into practice. The 2012–2017 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Strategic Plan emphasizes partnership with community stakeholders to capture critical missing information about the effects of environment on health and to improve translation of
[...] Read more.
Research informs action, but the challenge is its translation into practice. The 2012–2017 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Strategic Plan emphasizes partnership with community stakeholders to capture critical missing information about the effects of environment on health and to improve translation of study results, a daunting task for many traditionally-trained researchers. To better understand economic and neighborhood context consistent with these goals as well as existing inequities, we needed access to a highly affected community to inform and participate in our research. Our team therefore undertook a PhotoVoice project as a first step in establishing a participatory partnership and to appreciate the lived experiences of and build trust with youth visiting an urban community center in a high-risk, low-income, African American neighborhood located along a busy, polluted interstate. Ten 8–13 years-olds represented their community’s perspectives through photographs over 14-weeks using structured questioning. Five themes emerged: poor eating habits/inadequate nutrition; safety/violence; family/friends/community support; future hopes/dreams; and garbage/environment. Public viewings of the photos/captions facilitated engagement of other community agencies and multidisciplinary academic faculties to work together to build a sustainable “community collaboratory” that will promote health at the center by providing families knowledge/skills to prevent/minimize environmental exposures via diet/lifestyle changes using community-engaged, citizen scientist and systems thinking approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eliminating Health Disparities to Achieve Health Equity)
Open AccessArticle Spatial and Temporal Variations of Satellite-Derived Multi-Year Particulate Data of Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11152-11166; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111152
Received: 9 July 2014 / Revised: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 12 September 2014 / Published: 27 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of concentrations of fine particulate matter on urban populations have been gaining attention because fine particulate matter exposes the urban populace to health risks such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Satellite-derived data, using aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been adopted to
[...] Read more.
The effects of concentrations of fine particulate matter on urban populations have been gaining attention because fine particulate matter exposes the urban populace to health risks such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Satellite-derived data, using aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been adopted to improve the monitoring of fine particulate matter. One of such data sources is the global multi-year PM2.5 data (2001–2010) released by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). This paper explores the satellite-derived PM2.5 data of Saudi Arabia to highlight the trend of PM2.5 concentrations. It also examines the changes in PM2.5 concentrations in some urbanized areas of Saudi Arabia. Concentrations in major cities like Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, Makkah, Madinah and the industrial cities of Yanbu and Jubail are analyzed using cluster analysis. The health risks due to exposure of the populace are highlighted by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and targets. The results show a trend of increasing concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas. Significant clusters of high values are found in the eastern and south-western part of the country. There is a need to explore this topic using images with higher spatial resolution and validate the data with ground observations to improve the analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle Is Being a Boy and Feeling Fat a Barrier for Physical Activity? The Association between Body Image, Gender and Physical Activity among Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11167-11176; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111167
Received: 3 July 2014 / Revised: 23 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 27 October 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Regular physical activity leads to physical and mental health benefits. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with body image and gender. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the associations of body image with physical activity of adolescents
[...] Read more.
Regular physical activity leads to physical and mental health benefits. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with body image and gender. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the associations of body image with physical activity of adolescents and whether gender modifies this association. We obtained data on body image and physical activity as part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study in 2010 from Slovakia (n = 8042, age 11–15 years, 49% boys, response rate: 79.5%). Adolescents answered questions about their body image and the frequency of their physical activity. Sufficient physical activity was more likely in adolescents perceiving themselves as fat (OR = 0.63, 95%CI 0.54–0.73) and in boys (OR = 2.15, 95%CI 1.92–2.42). A poor body image among girls was not associated with physical activity, whereas among boys it was associated with less physical activity. Gender seems to moderate the relationship between body image and physical activity in youths. Health promotion should be targeted in particular at boys with a negative body image, as they are at higher risk of physical inactivity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Select Analytes in Exhaled Aerosol from E-Cigarettes with Exhaled Smoke from a Conventional Cigarette and Exhaled Breaths
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11177-11191; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111177
Received: 21 August 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 27 October 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Exhaled aerosols were collected following the use of two leading U.S. commercial electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and a conventional cigarette by human subjects and analyzed for phenolics, carbonyls, water, glycerin and nicotine using a vacuum-assisted filter pad capture system. Exhaled breath blanks were determined
[...] Read more.
Exhaled aerosols were collected following the use of two leading U.S. commercial electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and a conventional cigarette by human subjects and analyzed for phenolics, carbonyls, water, glycerin and nicotine using a vacuum-assisted filter pad capture system. Exhaled breath blanks were determined for each subject prior to each product use and aerosol collection session. Distribution and mass balance of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol composition was greater than 99.9% water and glycerin, and a small amount (<0.06%) of nicotine. Total phenolic content in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol was not distinguishable from exhaled breath blanks, while total phenolics in exhaled cigarette smoke were significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol and exhaled breaths, averaging 66 µg/session (range 36 to 117 µg/session). The total carbonyls in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols were also not distinguishable from exhaled breaths or room air blanks. Total carbonyls in exhaled cigarette smoke was significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols, exhaled breath and room air blanks, averaging 242 µg/session (range 136 to 352 µg/session). These results indicate that exhaled e-cigarette aerosol does not increase bystander exposure for phenolics and carbonyls above the levels observed in exhaled breaths of air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarettes as a Tool in Tobacco Harm Reduction)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Association between Screen Viewing Duration and Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Adolescents in Hong Kong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11201-11219; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111201
Received: 16 August 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 23 October 2014 / Published: 28 October 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as
[...] Read more.
Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices) are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762). Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effectiveness of the Electronic Cigarette: An Eight-Week Flemish Study with Six-Month Follow-up on Smoking Reduction, Craving and Experienced Benefits and Complaints
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11220-11248; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111220
Received: 12 June 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 29 October 2014
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (905 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Smoking reduction remains a pivotal issue in public health policy, but quit rates obtained with traditional quit-smoking therapies remain disappointingly low. Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR), aiming at less harmful ways of consuming nicotine, may provide a more effective alternative. One promising candidate
[...] Read more.
Background: Smoking reduction remains a pivotal issue in public health policy, but quit rates obtained with traditional quit-smoking therapies remain disappointingly low. Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR), aiming at less harmful ways of consuming nicotine, may provide a more effective alternative. One promising candidate for THR are electronic cigarettes (e-cigs). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of second-generation e-cigs both in terms of acute craving-reduction in the lab and in terms of smoking reduction and experienced benefits/complaints in an eight-month Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). Design: RCT with three arms. Methods: Participants (N = 48) unwilling to quit smoking were randomized into two e-cig groups and one control group. During three lab sessions (over two months) participants, who had been abstinent for four hours, vaped/smoked for five minutes, after which we monitored the effect on craving and withdrawal symptoms. eCO and saliva cotinine levels were also measured. In between lab sessions, participants in the e-cig groups could use e-cigs or smoke ad libitum, whereas the control group could only smoke. After the lab sessions, the control group also received an e-cig. The RCT included several questionnaires, which repeatedly monitored the effect of ad libitum e-cig use on the use of tobacco cigarettes and the experienced benefits/complaints up to six months after the last lab session. Results: From the first lab session on, e-cig use after four hours of abstinence resulted in a reduction in cigarette craving which was of the same magnitude as when a cigarette was smoked, while eCO was unaffected. After two months, we observed that 34% of the e-cig groups had stopped smoking tobacco cigarettes, versus 0% of the control group (difference p < 0.01). After five months, the e-cig groups demonstrated a total quit-rate of 37%, whereas the control group showed a quit rate of 38% three months after initiating e-cig use. At the end of the eight-month study, 19% of the e-cig groups and 25% of the control group were totally abstinent from smoking, while an overall reduction of 60% in the number of cigarettes smoked per day was observed (compared to intake). eCO levels decreased, whereas cotinine levels were the same in all groups at each moment of measurement. Reported benefits far outweighed the reported complaints. Conclusion: In a series of controlled lab sessions with e-cig naïve tobacco smokers, second generation e-cigs were shown to be immediately and highly effective in reducing abstinence induced cigarette craving and withdrawal symptoms, while not resulting in increases in eCO. Remarkable (>50 pc) eight-month reductions in, or complete abstinence from tobacco smoking was achieved with the e-cig in almost half (44%) of the participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarettes as a Tool in Tobacco Harm Reduction)
Open AccessArticle Survival of Salmonella enterica in Aerated and Nonaerated Wastewaters from Dairy Lagoons
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11249-11260; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111249
Received: 25 September 2014 / Revised: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 29 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped
[...] Read more.
Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
Open AccessArticle WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11261-11285; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111261
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 30 October 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods
[...] Read more.
Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI/A Z-score was not observed. Conclusions: Some European countries have implemented more school policies that are supportive to a healthy nutrition environment than others. However, most countries with low school nutrition environment scores also host schools with supportive school environment policies, suggesting that a uniform school policy to tackle the “unhealthy” school nutrition environment has not been implemented at the same level throughout a country and may underline the need for harmonized school policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood Obesity: Novel Approaches to a Global Problem)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Secondary Organic Aerosols on Novel Object Recognition Ability and Maternal Behavior in BALB/C Mice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11286-11307; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111286
Received: 21 March 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 30 October 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are formed by oxidative reaction
[...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE) in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs) produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control), DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week) and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-a, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrafine Particles and Potential Health Effects)
Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Loss of All Teeth (Edentulism) and Associated Factors in Older Adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11308-11324; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111308
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 30 October 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Little information exists about the loss of all one’s teeth (edentulism) among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines the prevalence of edentulism and associated factors among older adults in a cross-sectional study across six such countries. Data from the
[...] Read more.
Little information exists about the loss of all one’s teeth (edentulism) among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines the prevalence of edentulism and associated factors among older adults in a cross-sectional study across six such countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO’s) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was used for this study with adults aged 50-plus from China (N = 13,367), Ghana (N = 4724), India (N = 7150), Mexico (N = 2315), Russian Federation (N = 3938) and South Africa (N = 3840). Multivariate regression was used to assess predictors of edentulism. The overall prevalence of edentulism was 11.7% in the six countries, with India, Mexico, and Russia has higher prevalence rates (16.3%–21.7%) than China, Ghana, and South Africa (3.0%–9.0%). In multivariate logistic analysis sociodemographic factors (older age, lower education), chronic conditions (arthritis, asthma), health risk behaviour (former daily tobacco use, inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption) and other health related variables (functional disability and low social cohesion) were associated with edentulism. The national estimates and identified factors associated with edentulism among older adults across the six countries helps to identify areas for further exploration and targets for intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Environmental Determinants of Oral Health)
Open AccessArticle Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Profile of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products: E-Liquids, Extracts and Collected Aerosols
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11325-11347; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111325
Received: 1 August 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 October 2014 / Published: 30 October 2014
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of
[...] Read more.
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarettes as a Tool in Tobacco Harm Reduction)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Impact of Vehicular Networks on Emergency Medical Services in Urban Areas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11348-11370; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111348
Received: 25 August 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
PDF Full-text (1870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The speed with which emergency personnel can provide emergency treatment is crucial to reducing death and disability among acute and critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the rapid development of cities and increased numbers of vehicles are preventing emergency vehicles from easily reaching locations where
[...] Read more.
The speed with which emergency personnel can provide emergency treatment is crucial to reducing death and disability among acute and critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the rapid development of cities and increased numbers of vehicles are preventing emergency vehicles from easily reaching locations where they are needed. A significant number of researchers are experimenting with vehicular networks to address this issue, but in most studies the focus has been on communication technologies and protocols, with few efforts to assess how network applications actually support emergency medical care. Our motivation was to search the literature for suggested methods for assisting emergency vehicles, and to use simulations to evaluate them. Our results and evidence-based studies were cross-referenced to assess each method in terms of cumulative survival ratio (CSR) gains for acute and critically ill patients. Simulation results indicate that traffic light preemption resulted in significant CSR increases of between 32.4% and 90.2%. Route guidance was found to increase CSRs from 14.1% to 57.8%, while path clearing increased CSRs by 15.5% or less. It is our hope that this data will support the efforts of emergency medical technicians, traffic managers, and policy makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proceedings from 2014 Global Land Project (GLP) Asia Conference)
Open AccessArticle Heat-Related Mortality in a Warming Climate: Projections for 12 U.S. Cities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11371-11383; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111371
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heat is among the deadliest weather-related phenomena in the United States, and the number of heat-related deaths may increase under a changing climate, particularly in urban areas. Regional adaptation planning is unfortunately often limited by the lack of quantitative information on potential future
[...] Read more.
Heat is among the deadliest weather-related phenomena in the United States, and the number of heat-related deaths may increase under a changing climate, particularly in urban areas. Regional adaptation planning is unfortunately often limited by the lack of quantitative information on potential future health responses. This study presents an assessment of the future impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality in 12 cities using 16 global climate models, driven by two scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions. Although the magnitude of the projected heat effects was found to differ across time, cities, climate models and greenhouse pollution emissions scenarios, climate change was projected to result in increases in heat-related fatalities over time throughout the 21st century in all of the 12 cities included in this study. The increase was more substantial under the high emission pathway, highlighting the potential benefits to public health of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Nearly 200,000 heat-related deaths are projected to occur in the 12 cities by the end of the century due to climate warming, over 22,000 of which could be avoided if we follow a low GHG emission pathway. The presented estimates can be of value to local decision makers and stakeholders interested in developing strategies to reduce these impacts and building climate change resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Weather-Related Morbidity and Mortality: Risks and Responses)
Open AccessArticle Estimating the Costs and Benefits of Providing Free Public Transit Passes to Students in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Applying a Health Lens to Decision-Making
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11384-11397; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111384
Received: 18 September 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 22 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In spite of increased focus by public health to engage and work with non-health sector partners to improve the health of the general as well as special populations, only a paucity of studies have described and disseminated emerging lessons and promising practices that
[...] Read more.
In spite of increased focus by public health to engage and work with non-health sector partners to improve the health of the general as well as special populations, only a paucity of studies have described and disseminated emerging lessons and promising practices that can be used to undertake this work. This article describes the process used to conduct a Health Impact Assessment of a proposal to provide free public transportation passes to students in Los Angeles County. This illustrative case example describes opportunities and challenges encountered in working with an array of cross-sector partners and highlights four important lessons learned: (1) the benefits and challenges associated with broad conceptualization of public issues; (2) the need for more comprehensive, longitudinal data systems and dynamic simulation models to inform decision-making; (3) the importance of having a comprehensive policy assessment strategy that considers health impacts as well as costs and feasibility; and (4) the need for additional efforts to delineate the interconnectivity between health and other agency priorities. As public health advances cross-sector work in the community, further development of these priorities will help advance meaningful collaboration among all partners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Impact Assessment: Realizing Its Potential)
Open AccessArticle Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Children: Prevalence and Correlates
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11398-11417; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111398
Received: 10 September 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 3 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between
[...] Read more.
There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood Obesity: Novel Approaches to a Global Problem)
Open AccessArticle Multivariate Optimization for Extraction of Pyrethroids in Milk and Validation for GC-ECD and CG-MS/MS Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11421-11437; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111421
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple and inexpensive method based on solvent extraction followed by low temperature clean-up was applied for determination of seven pyrethroids residues in bovine raw milk using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography with electron-capture detector (GC-ECD). Sample
[...] Read more.
A simple and inexpensive method based on solvent extraction followed by low temperature clean-up was applied for determination of seven pyrethroids residues in bovine raw milk using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography with electron-capture detector (GC-ECD). Sample extraction procedure was established through the evaluation of seven different extraction protocols, evaluated in terms of analyte recovery and cleanup efficiency. Sample preparation optimization was based on Doehlert design using fifteen runs with three different variables. Response surface methodologies and polynomial analysis were used to define the best extraction conditions. Method validation was carried out based on SANCO guide parameters and assessed by multivariate analysis. Method performance was considered satisfactory since mean recoveries were between 87% and 101% for three distinct concentrations. Accuracy and precision were lower than ±20%, and led to no significant differences (p < 0.05) between results obtained by GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS techniques. The method has been applied to routine analysis for determination of pyrethroid residues in bovine raw milk in the Brazilian National Residue Control Plan since 2013, in which a total of 50 samples were analyzed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11438-11449; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111438
Received: 3 July 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
PDF Full-text (778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats
[...] Read more.
Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ≤ 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ≤ 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ≤ 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Community-Based Comprehensive Intervention Program for 7200 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chongqing (China)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11450-11463; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111450
Received: 2 September 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 31 October 2014 / Published: 6 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study assessed the feasibility of community-based comprehensive intervention on Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on a large population in China. An intervention study was conducted on 7200 T2DM patients within one year and consisted of six lectures on health issues, and four
[...] Read more.
This study assessed the feasibility of community-based comprehensive intervention on Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on a large population in China. An intervention study was conducted on 7200 T2DM patients within one year and consisted of six lectures on health issues, and four times face-to-face lifestyle counseling delivered by general health practitioners, at local primary health centers (PHCs). A “knowledge, attitude and practice” (KAP) survey and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) measurement were conducted at baseline and after the intervention, respectively. A total of 6586 T2DM patients completed the intervention. After one year intervention, patients’ KAP level improved significantly (p < 0.001) and the average FPG has decreased from 8.53 mmol/L (standard deviation: 2.84) to 7.11 mmol/L (standard deviation: 1.34) (p < 0.001). Patients in rural areas and with lower education level showed higher FPG and poorer KAP level both before and after the intervention. In conclusion, community-based comprehensive intervention for T2DM is feasible on a large population. Improving and repeating the comprehensive strategy is greatly recommended in order to sustain the impact, especially in rural areas and for patients with lower education levels. Full article
Open AccessArticle Reasoning the Causality of City Sprawl, Traffic Congestion, and Green Land Disappearance in Taiwan Using the CLD Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11464-11480; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111464
Received: 20 August 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 6 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many city governments choose to supply more developable land and transportation infrastructure with the hope of attracting people and businesses to their cities. However, like those in Taiwan, major cities worldwide suffer from traffic congestion. This study applies the system thinking logic of
[...] Read more.
Many city governments choose to supply more developable land and transportation infrastructure with the hope of attracting people and businesses to their cities. However, like those in Taiwan, major cities worldwide suffer from traffic congestion. This study applies the system thinking logic of the causal loops diagram (CLD) model in the System Dynamics (SD) approach to analyze the issue of traffic congestion and other issues related to roads and land development in Taiwan’s cities. Comparing the characteristics of development trends with yearbook data for 2002 to 2013 for all of Taiwan’s cities, this study explores the developing phenomenon of unlimited city sprawl and identifies the cause and effect relationships in the characteristics of development trends in traffic congestion, high-density population aggregation in cities, land development, and green land disappearance resulting from city sprawl. This study provides conclusions for Taiwan’s cities’ sustainability and development (S&D). When developing S&D policies, during decision making processes concerning city planning and land use management, governments should think with a holistic view of carrying capacity with the assistance of system thinking to clarify the prejudices in favor of the unlimited developing phenomena resulting from city sprawl. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proceedings from 2014 Global Land Project (GLP) Asia Conference)
Open AccessArticle Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability of Residential Air Exchange Rates for the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11481-11504; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111481
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 7 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Air pollution health studies often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of residential infiltration of outdoor pollutants can induce exposure errors and lead to bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates. The residential air exchange rate
[...] Read more.
Air pollution health studies often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of residential infiltration of outdoor pollutants can induce exposure errors and lead to bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates. The residential air exchange rate (AER), which is the rate of exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for house-to-house (spatial) and temporal variations of air pollution infiltration. Our goal was to evaluate and apply mechanistic models to predict AERs for 213 homes in the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS), a cohort study of traffic-related air pollution exposures and respiratory effects in asthmatic children living near major roads in Detroit, Michigan. We used a previously developed model (LBL), which predicts AER from meteorology and questionnaire data on building characteristics related to air leakage, and an extended version of this model (LBLX) that includes natural ventilation from open windows. As a critical and novel aspect of our AER modeling approach, we performed a cross validation, which included both parameter estimation (i.e., model calibration) and model evaluation, based on daily AER measurements from a subset of 24 study homes on five consecutive days during two seasons. The measured AER varied between 0.09 and 3.48 h−1 with a median of 0.64 h−1. For the individual model-predicted and measured AER, the median absolute difference was 29% (0.19 h‑1) for both the LBL and LBLX models. The LBL and LBLX models predicted 59% and 61% of the variance in the AER, respectively. Daily AER predictions for all 213 homes during the three year study (2010–2012) showed considerable house-to-house variations from building leakage differences, and temporal variations from outdoor temperature and wind speed fluctuations. Using this novel approach, NEXUS will be one of the first epidemiology studies to apply calibrated and home-specific AER models, and to include the spatial and temporal variations of AER for over 200 individual homes across multiple years into an exposure assessment in support of improving risk estimates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Modeling)
Open AccessArticle Spatial Analysis of the Distribution, Risk Factors and Access to Medical Resources of Patients with Hepatitis B in Shenzhen, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11505-11527; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111505
Received: 22 September 2014 / Revised: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 31 October 2014 / Published: 7 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Considering the high morbidity of hepatitis B in China, many epidemiological studies based on classic medical statistical analysis have been started but lack spatial information. However, spatial information such as the spatial distribution, autocorrelation and risk factors of the disease is of great
[...] Read more.
Considering the high morbidity of hepatitis B in China, many epidemiological studies based on classic medical statistical analysis have been started but lack spatial information. However, spatial information such as the spatial distribution, autocorrelation and risk factors of the disease is of great help in studying patients with hepatitis B. This study examined 2851 cases of hepatitis B that were hospitalized in Shenzhen in 2010 and studied the spatial distribution, risk factors and spatial access to health services using spatial interpolation, Pearson correlation analysis and the improved two-step floating catchment area method. The results showed that the spatial distribution of hepatitis B, along with risk factors as well as spatial access to the regional medical resources, was uneven and mainly concentrated in the south and southwest of Shenzhen in 2010. In addition, the distribution characteristics of hepatitis B revealed a positive correlation between four types of service establishments and risk factors for the disease. The Pearson correlation coefficients are 0.566, 0.515, 0.626, 0.538 corresponding to bath centres, beauty salons, massage parlours and pedicure parlours (p < 0.05). Additionally, the allocation of medical resources for hepatitis B is adequate, as most patients could be treated at nearby hospitals. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Mobility, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Pb and Cd in Contaminated Soil Using TCLP, BCR and Earthworms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11528-11540; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111528
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 7 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the reduction of mobility, availability and toxicity found in soil contaminated with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from Santo Amaro Municipality, Bahia, Brazil using two combined methods, commonly tested separately according to the literature:
[...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the reduction of mobility, availability and toxicity found in soil contaminated with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from Santo Amaro Municipality, Bahia, Brazil using two combined methods, commonly tested separately according to the literature: metal mobilization with phosphates and phytoextraction. The strategy applied was the treatment with two sources of phosphates (separately and mixed) followed by phytoremediation with vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)). The treatments applied (in triplicates) were: T1—potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4); T2—reactive natural phosphate fertilizer (NRP) and; T3—a mixture 1:1 of KH2PO4 and NRP. After this step, untreated and treated soils were planted with vetiver grass. The extraction procedures and assays applied to contaminated soil before and after the treatments included metal mobility test (TCLP); sequential extraction with BCR method; toxicity assays with Eisenia andrei. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) for Pb and Cd were estimated in all cases. All treatments with phosphates followed by phytoremediation reduced the mobility and availability of Pb and Cd, being KH2PO4 (T1) plus phytoremediation the most effective one. Soil toxicity however, remained high after all treatments. Full article
Open AccessArticle Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Cervical Cancer and Screening among Haitian Health Care Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11541-11552; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111541
Received: 15 August 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed
[...] Read more.
It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective “screen-and-treat” programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mosquito Surveillance for Prevention and Control of Emerging Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Portugal — 2008–2014
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11583-11596; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111583
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 29 October 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1880 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national programREVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)has
[...] Read more.
Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national programREVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoescollected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Novel Socioeconomic Measure Using Individual Housing Data in Cardiovascular Outcome Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11597-11615; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111597
Received: 16 August 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 October 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: To assess whether the individual housing-based socioeconomic status (SES) measure termed HOUSES was associated with post-myocardial infarction (MI) mortality. Methods: The study was designed as a population-based cohort study, which compared post-MI mortality among Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA, residents with
[...] Read more.
Background: To assess whether the individual housing-based socioeconomic status (SES) measure termed HOUSES was associated with post-myocardial infarction (MI) mortality. Methods: The study was designed as a population-based cohort study, which compared post-MI mortality among Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA, residents with different SES as measured by HOUSES using Cox proportional hazards models. Subjects’ addresses at index date of MI were geocoded to real property data to formulate HOUSES (a z-score for housing value, square footage, and numbers of bedrooms and bathrooms). Educational levels were used as a comparison for the HOUSES index. Results: 637 of the 696 eligible patients with MI (92%) were successfully geocoded to real property data. Post-MI survival rates were 60% (50–72), 78% (71–85), 72% (60–87), and 87% (81–93) at 2 years for patients in the first (the lowest SES), second, third, and fourth quartiles of HOUSES, respectively (p < 0.001). HOUSES was associated with post-MI all-cause mortality, controlling for all variables except age and comorbidity (p = 0.036) but was not significant after adjusting for age and comorbidity (p = 0.24). Conclusions: Although HOUSES is associated with post-MI mortality, the differential mortality rates by HOUSES were primarily accounted for by age and comorbid conditions. HOUSES may be useful for health disparities research concerning cardiovascular outcomes, especially in overcoming the paucity of conventional SES measures in commonly used datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eliminating Health Disparities to Achieve Health Equity)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Daily Individual Meteorological Parameters on the Incidence of Acute Coronary Syndrome
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11616-11626; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111616
Received: 1 September 2014 / Revised: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: A nationwide study was conducted to explore the short term association between daily individual meteorological parameters and the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated with coronary emergency catheter interventions in the Republic of Slovenia, a south-central European country. Method:
[...] Read more.
Background: A nationwide study was conducted to explore the short term association between daily individual meteorological parameters and the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated with coronary emergency catheter interventions in the Republic of Slovenia, a south-central European country. Method: We linked meteorological data with daily ACS incidence for the entire population of Slovenia, for the population over 65 years of age and for the population under 65 years of age. Data were collected daily for a period of 4 years from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2011. In line with existing studies, we used a main effect generalized linear model with a log-link-function and a Poisson distribution of ACS. Results and Conclusions: Three of the studied meteorological factors (daily average temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity) all have relevant and significant influences on ACS incidences for the entire population. However, the ACS incidence for the population over 65 is only affected by daily average temperature, while the ACS incidence for the population under 65 is affected by daily average pressure and humidity. In terms of ambient temperature, the overall findings of our study are in line with the findings of the majority of contemporary European studies, which also note a negative correlation. The results regarding atmospheric pressure and humidity are less in line, due to considerable variations in results. Additionally, the number of available European studies on atmospheric pressure and humidity is relatively low. The fourth studied variable—season—does not influence ACS incidence in a statistically significant way. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Association of Weekly Suicide Rates with Temperature Anomalies in Two Different Climate Types
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11627-11644; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111627
Received: 14 August 2014 / Revised: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2751 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Annual suicide deaths outnumber the total deaths from homicide and war combined. Suicide is a complex behavioral endpoint, and a simple cause-and-effect model seems highly unlikely, but relationships with weather could yield important insight into the biopsychosocial mechanisms involved in suicide deaths. This
[...] Read more.
Annual suicide deaths outnumber the total deaths from homicide and war combined. Suicide is a complex behavioral endpoint, and a simple cause-and-effect model seems highly unlikely, but relationships with weather could yield important insight into the biopsychosocial mechanisms involved in suicide deaths. This study has been designed to test for a relationship between air temperature and suicide frequency that is consistent enough to offer some predictive abilities. Weekly suicide death totals and anomalies from Toronto, Ontario, Canada (1986–2009) and Jackson, Mississippi, USA (1980–2006) are analyzed for relationships by using temperature anomaly data and a distributed lag nonlinear model. For both analysis methods, anomalously cool weeks show low probabilities of experiencing high-end suicide totals while warmer weeks are more likely to experience high-end suicide totals. This result is consistent for Toronto and Jackson. Weekly suicide totals demonstrate a sufficient association with temperature anomalies to allow some prediction of weeks with or without increased suicide frequency. While this finding alone is unlikely to have immediate clinical implications, these results are an important step toward clarifying the biopsychosocial mechanisms of suicidal behavior through a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between temperature and suicide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Weather-Related Morbidity and Mortality: Risks and Responses)
Open AccessArticle Community-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Blood Pressure and Glucose among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in China: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11645-11663; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111645
Received: 10 July 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although evidence suggests that lifestyle interventions can reduce blood pressure (BP) and glucose levels, there is little information about the feasibility of such interventions when implemented in community settings. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle intervention on BP and glucose
[...] Read more.
Although evidence suggests that lifestyle interventions can reduce blood pressure (BP) and glucose levels, there is little information about the feasibility of such interventions when implemented in community settings. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle intervention on BP and glucose in the middle-aged and older Chinese population. By using a cluster randomisation approach, 474 participants from two communities were assigned to the intervention group which received intensive health education and behavioural intervention, or the control group which received conventional education. Linear mixed models were used to compare between-group differences on change in BP and fasting glucose after 6, 12 and 24 months. At the 12-month follow-up, the intervention group experienced significantly reductions in systolic BP (−4.9 vs. 2.4 mmHg; mean difference [MD] −7.3 mmHg; p < 0.001), diastolic BP (−1.9 vs. 1.9 mmHg; MD −3.8 mmHg; p < 0.001) and fasting glucose (−0.59 vs. 0.08 mmol/L; MD −0.67 mmol/L; p < 0.001). These differences were sustained at the 24-month follow-up. With only two communities, it was not possible to adjust for potential clustering by site. This approach of lifestyle interventions conducted through primary care services may be a potential solution for combating hypertension and diabetes in a resource-limited country context in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Open AccessArticle Liver δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Inhibited by Neonicotinoids and Restored by Antioxidant Agents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11676-11690; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111676
Received: 18 July 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neonicotinoids represent the most used class of insecticides worldwide, and their precursor, imidacloprid, is the most widely marketed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of imidacloprid on the activity of hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), protective effect of potential antioxidants
[...] Read more.
Neonicotinoids represent the most used class of insecticides worldwide, and their precursor, imidacloprid, is the most widely marketed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of imidacloprid on the activity of hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), protective effect of potential antioxidants against this potential effect and presence of chemical elements in the constitution of this pesticide. We observed that δ-ALA-D activity was significantly inhibited by imidacloprid at all concentrations tested in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value was obtained and used to evaluate the restoration of the enzymatic activity. δ-ALA-D inhibition was completely restored by addition of dithiotreitol (DTT) and partly by ZnCl2, demonstrating that the inhibition occurs by oxidation of thiol groups and by displacement of the Zn (II), which can be explained by the presence of chemical elements found in the constitution of pesticides. Reduced glutathione (GSH) had the best antioxidant effect against to δ-ALA-D inhibition caused by imidacloprid, followed by curcumin and resveratrol. It is well known that inhibition of the enzyme δ-ALA-D may result in accumulation of its neurotoxic substrate (δ-ALA), in this line, our results suggest that further studies are needed to investigate the possible neurotoxicity induced by neonicotinoids and the involvement of antioxidants in cases of poisoning by neonicotinoids. Full article
Open AccessArticle Awareness, Trial, and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in 10 Countries: Findings from the ITC Project
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11691-11704; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111691
Received: 5 June 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents
[...] Read more.
Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years) current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. Results: There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%), Republic of Korea (2010: 79%), United States (2010: 73%), Australia (2013: 66%), Malaysia (2011: 62%), United Kingdom (2010: 54%), Canada (2010: 40%), Brazil (2013: 35%), Mexico (2012: 34%), and China (2009: 31%)), in self-reports of ever having tried e-cigarettes (Australia, (20%), Malaysia (19%), Netherlands (18%), United States (15%), Republic of Korea (11%), United Kingdom (10%), Mexico (4%), Canada (4%), Brazil (3%), and China (2%)), and in current use (Malaysia (14%), Republic of Korea (7%), Australia (7%), United States (6%), United Kingdom (4%), Netherlands (3%), Canada (1%), and China (0.05%)). Conclusions: The cross-country variability in awareness, trial, and current use of e-cigarettes is likely due to a confluence of country-specific market factors, tobacco control policies and regulations (e.g., the legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine), and the survey timing along the trajectory of e-cigarette awareness and trial/use in each country. These ITC results constitute an important snapshot of an early stage of what appears to be a rapid progression of global e-cigarette use. Full article
Open AccessArticle How Has the Availability of Snus Influenced Cigarette Smoking in Norway?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11705-11717; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111705
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: In Norway, low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (snus) is allowed to compete with cigarettes for market share. We aimed to study how the availability of snus influenced overall tobacco consumption, smoking initiation and smoking cessation. We discuss whether the Norwegian experience with snus
[...] Read more.
Background: In Norway, low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (snus) is allowed to compete with cigarettes for market share. We aimed to study how the availability of snus influenced overall tobacco consumption, smoking initiation and smoking cessation. We discuss whether the Norwegian experience with snus can have any transfer value for e-cigarettes. Methods: We analysed consumption data from registered and unregistered supply sources of tobacco. We calculated quit-smoking ratios across snus use status in nine datasets comprising a total of 19,269 ever-smokers. Trends in snus use and smoking were derived from time-series of annual; cross-sectional; nationally representative surveys for the period 1985–2013. Results: The market share for snus increased from 4% in 1985 to 28% in 2012, but overall tobacco consumption decreased by 20.3% over this same period. Snus was the most common method for smoking cessation. Compared with smokers with no experience of using snus, the quit ratio for smoking was significantly higher for daily snus users in seven of the nine datasets analysed. Among young male adults, the prevalence of smoking (daily + occasional) was reduced from 50% in 1985 to 21% in 2013. Over the same period, use of snus increased from 9% to 33%. This negative correlation (r = −0.900, p < 0.001) was also observed among young females (r = −0.811, p < 0.001), but the trend shift in tobacco preferences occurred some years later. Conclusions: The experience with snus in Norway might indicate what will happen when alternative nicotine products––are allowed to compete with cigarettes in the nicotine market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarettes as a Tool in Tobacco Harm Reduction)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Resistance to Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Salmonella from a Broiler Supply Chain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11718-11726; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111718
Received: 26 August 2014 / Revised: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae varies worldwide, however, the incidence of ESBL-producing environmental Salmonella isolates is increasing. Salmonella is still one of the most important pathogens that occur in the poultry supply chain. Therefore, this study analyzed the susceptibility of Salmonella
[...] Read more.
The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae varies worldwide, however, the incidence of ESBL-producing environmental Salmonella isolates is increasing. Salmonella is still one of the most important pathogens that occur in the poultry supply chain. Therefore, this study analyzed the susceptibility of Salmonella isolates collected from a poultry supply chain to β-lactam antibiotics, and examined the phenotypes of the isolates based on enzyme-inducible AmpC β-lactamase analysis. All analysis of the putative positive isolates in the current study confirmed that 27.02% (77/285 analysis) of all ESBL tests realized with the isolates produced a profile of resistance consistent with β-lactamase production. All isolates of S. Minnesota serotype had ESBL phenotype. Aztreonam resistance was the least common amongst the Salmonella isolates, followed by ceftazidime. The presence of inducible chromosomal ESBL was detected in 14 different isolates of the 19 serotypes investigated. These results are very indicatives of the presence of ESBL genes in Salmonella isolates from a broiler supply chain, reaffirming the growing global problem of ESBL resistance. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparing Multipollutant Emissions-Based Mobile Source Indicators to Other Single Pollutant and Multipollutant Indicators in Different Urban Areas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11727-11752; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111727
Received: 15 August 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A variety of single pollutant and multipollutant metrics can be used to represent exposure to traffic pollutant mixtures and evaluate their health effects. Integrated mobile source indicators (IMSIs) that combine air quality concentration and emissions data have recently been developed and evaluated using
[...] Read more.
A variety of single pollutant and multipollutant metrics can be used to represent exposure to traffic pollutant mixtures and evaluate their health effects. Integrated mobile source indicators (IMSIs) that combine air quality concentration and emissions data have recently been developed and evaluated using data from Atlanta, Georgia. IMSIs were found to track trends in traffic-related pollutants and have similar or stronger associations with health outcomes. In the current work, we apply IMSIs for gasoline, diesel and total (gasoline + diesel) vehicles to two other cities (Denver, Colorado and Houston, Texas) with different emissions profiles as well as to a different dataset from Atlanta. We compare spatial and temporal variability of IMSIs to single-pollutant indicators (carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC)) and multipollutant source apportionment factors produced by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Across cities, PMF-derived and IMSI gasoline metrics were most strongly correlated with CO (r = 0.31–0.98), while multipollutant diesel metrics were most strongly correlated with EC (r = 0.80–0.98). NOx correlations with PMF factors varied across cities (r = 0.29–0.67), while correlations with IMSIs were relatively consistent (r = 0.61–0.94). In general, single-pollutant metrics were more correlated with IMSIs (r = 0.58–0.98) than with PMF-derived factors (r = 0.07–0.99). A spatial analysis indicated that IMSIs were more strongly correlated (r > 0.7) between two sites in each city than single pollutant and PMF factors. These findings provide confidence that IMSIs provide a transferable, simple approach to estimate mobile source air pollution in cities with differing topography and source profiles using readily available data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Modeling)
Open AccessArticle Odor and VOC Emissions from Pan Frying of Mackerel at Three Stages: Raw, Well-Done, and Charred
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11753-11771; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111753
Received: 8 August 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many classes of odorants and volatile organic compounds that are deleterious to our wellbeing can be emitted from diverse cooking activities. Once emitted, they can persist in our living space for varying durations. In this study, various volatile organic compounds released prior to
[...] Read more.
Many classes of odorants and volatile organic compounds that are deleterious to our wellbeing can be emitted from diverse cooking activities. Once emitted, they can persist in our living space for varying durations. In this study, various volatile organic compounds released prior to and during the pan frying of fish (mackerel) were analyzed at three different cooking stages (stage 1 = raw (R), stage 2 = well-done (W), and stage 3 = overcooked/charred (O)). Generally, most volatile organic compounds recorded their highest concentration levels at stage 3 (O), e.g., 465 (trimethylamine) and 106 ppb (acetic acid). In contrast, at stage 2 (W), the lowest volatile organic compounds emissions were observed. The overall results of this study confirm that trimethylamine is identified as the strongest odorous compound, especially prior to cooking (stage 1 (R)) and during overcooking leading to charring (stage 3 (O)). As there is a paucity of research effort to measure odor intensities from pan frying of mackerel, this study will provide valuable information regarding the management of indoor air quality. Full article
Open AccessArticle Factors Contributing to the Risk of HIV Infection in Rural School-Going Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11805-11821; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111805
Received: 8 August 2014 / Revised: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the factors that increase the risk of HIV infection in rural school-going adolescents and young adults. This was a cross-sectional study of 430 secondary school students (47.4% boys and 52.6% girls) from two rural schools
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the factors that increase the risk of HIV infection in rural school-going adolescents and young adults. This was a cross-sectional study of 430 secondary school students (47.4% boys and 52.6% girls) from two rural schools in South Africa. Data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire on demographic information, sources of HIV/AIDS information, HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, communication and negotiation skills, self-efficacy to refuse sex, peer influence and time perspective. Out of 113 (27.2%) participants who reported being sexually active, about 48% reported having had sex before the age of 15 and 42.2% reported penetrative sex with more than one partner in their lifetime. Only 44.8% of them reported consistent and regular use of condoms for every sexual encounter. Peer influence (OR = 3.01 (95% CI = 1.97–4.60)), gender difference (OR = 6.60 (95% CI = 1.62–26.84)) and lack of HIV information (OR = 1.22 (95% CI = 1.03–1.44)) influenced the sexual risk behaviors of the adolescents. Greater numbers of school-going adolescents in rural areas are sexually active. Peer influence, especially in boys, is a factor that increases the preponderance of risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Positively, adolescents with high knowledge of HIV infection are more likely to use condoms for every sexual encounter. There is a need to strengthen comprehensive sexual health education and youth-friendly HIV prevention strategies to promote abstinence and safe sexual behaviors, especially among boys. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Global Contribution of Outdoor Air Pollution to the Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality and Hospital Admission for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11822-11832; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111822
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 29 October 2014 / Accepted: 31 October 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the quantitative effects of outdoor air pollution, represented by 10 µg/m3 increment of PM10, on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China, United States and European Union through systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods:
[...] Read more.
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the quantitative effects of outdoor air pollution, represented by 10 µg/m3 increment of PM10, on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China, United States and European Union through systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Publications in English and Chinese from PubMed and EMBASE were selected. The Cochrane Review Handbook of Generic Inverse Variance was used to synthesize the pooled effects on incidence, prevalence, mortality and hospital admission. Results: Outdoor air pollution contributed to higher incidence and prevalence of COPD. Short-term exposure was associated with COPD mortality increased by 6%, 1% and 1% in the European Union, the United States and China, respectively (p < 0.05). Chronic PM exposure produced a 10% increase in mortality. In a short-term exposure to 10 µg/m3 PM10 increment COPD mortality was elevated by 1% in China (p < 0.05) and hospital admission enrollment was increased by 1% in China, 2% in United States and 1% in European Union (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Outdoor air pollution contributes to the increasing burdens of COPD.10 µg/m3 increase of PM10 produced significant condition of COPD death and exacerbation in China, United States and European Union. Controlling air pollution will have substantial benefit to COPD morbidity and mortality. Full article
Open AccessArticle Surface Water Quality Monitoring Site Optimization for Poyang Lake, the Largest Freshwater Lake in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11833-11845; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111833
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a coupled method to optimize the surface water quality monitoring sites for a huge freshwater lake based on field investigations, mathematical analysis, and numerical simulation tests. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as the
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a coupled method to optimize the surface water quality monitoring sites for a huge freshwater lake based on field investigations, mathematical analysis, and numerical simulation tests. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as the research area. Based on the field investigated water quality data in the 5 years from 2008 to 2012, the water quality inter-annual variation coefficients at all the present sites and the water quality correlation coefficients between adjacent sites were calculated and analyzed to present an optimization scheme. A 2-D unsteady water quality model was established to get the corresponding water quality data at the optimized monitoring sites, which were needed for the rationality test on the optimized monitoring network. We found that: (1) the water quality of Piaoshan (No. 10) fluctuated most distinguishably and the inter-annual variation coefficient of NH3-N and TP could reach 99.77% and 73.92%, respectively. The four studied indexes were all closely related at Piaoshan (No. 10) and Tangyin (No. 11), and the correlation coefficients of COD and NH3-N could reach 0.91 and 0.94 separately. (2) It was suggested that the present site No. 10 be removed to avoid repeatability, and it was suggested that the three sites of Changling, Huzhong, and Nanjiang be added to improve the representativeness of the monitoring sites. (3) According to the rationality analysis, the 21 optimized water quality monitoring sites could scientifically replace the primary network, and the new monitoring network could better reflect the water quality of the whole lake. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Simple Microbiological Tool to Evaluate the Effect of Environmental Health Interventions on Hand Contamination
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11846-11859; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111846
Received: 21 August 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of interventions such as sanitation or hand hygiene on hand contamination are difficult to evaluate. We explored the ability of a simple microbiological test to: (1) detect recontamination after handwashing; (2) reflect risk factors for microbial contamination and (3) be applicable
[...] Read more.
The effects of interventions such as sanitation or hand hygiene on hand contamination are difficult to evaluate. We explored the ability of a simple microbiological test to: (1) detect recontamination after handwashing; (2) reflect risk factors for microbial contamination and (3) be applicable to large populations. The study was done in rural Andhra Pradesh, India, and Maputo, Mozambique. Participants placed all 10 fingertips on a chromogenic agar that stains Enterococcus spp. and E. coli spp. Outcomes were the number of colonies and the number of fingertips with colonies. In the recontamination study, participants were randomised to handwashing with soap and no handwashing, and tested at 30 min intervals afterwards. In two cross sectional studies, risk factors for hand contamination were explored. Recontamination of hands after washing with soap was fast, with baseline levels reached after 1 h. Child care was associated with higher Enterococcus spp. counts, whereas agricultural activities increased E. coli spp. counts. Food preparation was associated with higher counts for both organisms. In Maputo, counts were not strongly associated with water access, latrine type, education or diarrhoea. The method seems unsuitable for the evaluation of handwashing promotion. It may reflect immediately preceding risk practices but not household-level risk factors. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11860-11878; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111860
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season) from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the
[...] Read more.
Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season) from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s) at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05). The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River) had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River) had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estimating the Heterogeneous Relationship between Peer Drinking and Youth Alcohol Consumption in Chile Using Propensity Score Stratification
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11879-11897; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111879
Received: 18 July 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When estimating the association between peer and youth alcohol consumption, it is critical to account for possible differential levels of response to peer socialization processes across youth, in addition to variability in individual, family, and social factors. Failure to account for intrinsic differences
[...] Read more.
When estimating the association between peer and youth alcohol consumption, it is critical to account for possible differential levels of response to peer socialization processes across youth, in addition to variability in individual, family, and social factors. Failure to account for intrinsic differences in youth’s response to peers may pose a threat of selection bias. To address this issue, we used a propensity score stratification method to examine whether the size of the association between peer and youth drinking is contingent upon differential predicted probabilities of associating with alcohol-consuming friends. Analyzing a Chilean youth sample (N = 914) of substance use, we found that youths are susceptible to the detrimental role of peer drinkers, but the harmful relationship with one’s own drinking behavior may be exacerbated among youth who already have a high probability of socializing with peers who drink. In other words, computing a single weighted-average estimate for peer drinking would have underestimated the detrimental role of peers, particularly among at-risk youths, and overestimated the role of drinking peers among youths who are less susceptible to peer socialization processes. Heterogeneous patterns in the association between peer and youth drinking may shed light on social policies that target at-risk youths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)
Open AccessArticle Mouth-Level Intake of Benzo[a]pyrene from Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11898-11914; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111898
Received: 20 August 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1055 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine
[...] Read more.
Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes is associated with changes in exposure to nicotine and BaP, levels of BaP in spent cigarette filter butts were correlated with levels of BaP in cigarette smoke to estimate mouth-level intake (MLI) of BaP for 72 daily smokers given three progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Urinary cotinine, a marker of nicotine exposure, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), a marker of PAH exposure, were measured throughout the study. Median daily BaP MLI and urine cotinine decreased in a similar manner as smokers switched to progressively lower nicotine cigarettes, despite relatively constant daily cigarette consumption. 1-HOP levels were less responsive to the use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. We demonstrate that spent cigarette filter butt analysis is a promising tool to estimate MLI of harmful chemicals on a per cigarette or per-day basis, which partially addresses the concerns of the temporal influence of smoking behavior or differences in cigarette design on exposure. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Causes and Circumstances of Drinking Water Incidents Impact Consumer Behaviour: Comparison of a Routine versus a Natural Disaster Incident
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11915-11930; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111915
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public
[...] Read more.
When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two “Boil Water” notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine “Boil Water” notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a “Boil Water” notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3%) than the routine incident (35.4%). For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food. Full article
Open AccessArticle Surveillance of Hospital Contacts among Danish Seafarers and Fishermen with Focus on Skin and Infectious Diseases—A Population-Based Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11931-11949; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111931
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objectives: A systematic overview of time trends in hospital contacts among Danish seafarers and fishermen by job title and analyses on skin and infectious diseases. Methods: Occupational cohorts with hospital contacts 1994–1998 and 1999–2003. Standardized hospital contact ratios (SHCR) were estimated using
[...] Read more.
Objectives: A systematic overview of time trends in hospital contacts among Danish seafarers and fishermen by job title and analyses on skin and infectious diseases. Methods: Occupational cohorts with hospital contacts 1994–1998 and 1999–2003. Standardized hospital contact ratios (SHCR) were estimated using national rates and ranked by SHCR size. Results: For non-officers in 1994–1998, infectious diseases had the highest SHCR, followed by neoplastic and endocrinal diseases; in 1999–2003 skin diseases were followed by endocrinal and gastrointestinal diseases. For fishermen in 1994–1998, nervous system, gastrointestinal, and skin diseases had the highest SHCRs; in 1999–2003 it was nervous system, skin, and lymphohematopoietic diseases. As for skin diseases, male fishermen and non-officer seamen generally had increased SHCRs, but engine room personnel specifically had a low SHCR for eczema (eight cases). Fishermen had high SHCRs for tuberculosis in both time periods (six and nine cases, respectively). Non-officer seamen on cargo ships had increased SHCRs for HIV in both time periods and for hepatitis in 1994–1999. Extending the follow-up until 2000 or 2005 showed similar results. Conclusions: Surveillance of seamen’s health gives useful information. The elevated SHCR for HIV infection among non-officers has not declined despite preventive information campaigns. Tuberculosis among fishermen may be due to infection on shore. Skin diseases had very high SHCRs, not due to cutaneous oil exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Virulence Genes Associated with Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Raw Cow’s Milk from Two Commercial Dairy Farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11950-11963; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111950
Received: 8 September 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Escherichia coli remains a public health concern worldwide as an organism that causes diarrhea and its reservoir in raw milk may play an important role in the survival and transport of pathogenic strains. Diarrheagenic E. coli strains are diverse food-borne pathogens and causes
[...] Read more.
Escherichia coli remains a public health concern worldwide as an organism that causes diarrhea and its reservoir in raw milk may play an important role in the survival and transport of pathogenic strains. Diarrheagenic E. coli strains are diverse food-borne pathogens and causes diarrhea with varying virulence in humans. We investigated the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli in raw milk from two commercial dairy farms. Four hundred raw milk samples, 200 from each dairy farm, were screened for the presence of fliCH7, eagR, ial, eagg, lt, and papC genes. In dairy farm A, 100 E. coli were identified based on culture, oxidase and Gram staining, while 88 isolates from dairy farm B were identified in the same manner. Gene detection showed fliCH7 27 (54%) to be the highest gene detected from farm A and lt 2 (4%) to be the lowest. The highest gene detected in dairy farm B was fliCH7 16 (43.2%) and papC 1 (2.7%) was the least. The amplification of pathogenic genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli from cows’ raw milk demonstrates that potentially virulent E. coli strains are widely distributed in raw milk and may be a cause of concern for human health. Full article
Open AccessArticle Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11964-11985; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111964
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (762 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore
[...] Read more.
Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Chemical Risk Ranking and Scoring Method for the Selection of Harmful Substances to be Specially Controlled in Occupational Environments
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 12001-12014; doi:10.3390/ijerph111112001
Received: 21 June 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to devise a method for prioritizing hazardous chemicals for further regulatory action. To accomplish this objective, we chose appropriate indicators and algorithms. Nine indicators from the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals were used to identify categories
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to devise a method for prioritizing hazardous chemicals for further regulatory action. To accomplish this objective, we chose appropriate indicators and algorithms. Nine indicators from the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals were used to identify categories to which the authors assigned numerical scores. Exposure indicators included handling volume, distribution, and exposure level. To test the method devised by this study, sixty-two harmful substances controlled by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in Korea, including acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and styrene were ranked using this proposed method. The correlation coefficients between total score and each indicator ranged from 0.160 to 0.641, and those between total score and hazard indicators ranged from 0.603 to 0.641. The latter were higher than the correlation coefficients between total score and exposure indicators, which ranged from 0.160 to 0.421. Correlations between individual indicators were low (−0.240 to 0.376), except for those between handling volume and distribution (0.613), suggesting that each indicator was not strongly correlated. The low correlations between each indicator mean that the indicators and independent and were well chosen for prioritizing harmful chemicals. This method proposed by this study can improve the cost efficiency of chemical management as utilized in occupational regulatory systems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Smoke-Free Homes and Home Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Shanghai, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 12015-12028; doi:10.3390/ijerph111112015
Received: 1 September 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (706 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Few studies have examined home exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in China. This study aimed to document: (1) the prevalence and correlates of exposure to SHS in homes (in adult non-smokers) in Shanghai, and (2) enforcement of rules, harm reduction behaviors, and self-efficacy
[...] Read more.
Few studies have examined home exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in China. This study aimed to document: (1) the prevalence and correlates of exposure to SHS in homes (in adult non-smokers) in Shanghai, and (2) enforcement of rules, harm reduction behaviors, and self-efficacy for maintaining smoke-free homes in Shanghai. A total of 500 participants were recruited using a multistage proportional random sampling design in an urban and suburban district to complete a survey. Among the total 355 nonsmokers, 127 (35.8%) participants reported being exposed to SHS in the past 7 days. Participants living with smokers in the home, with no smoking restriction at home, and having children younger than 18 were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home. Higher self-efficacy in maintaining a smoke-free home was negatively associated with home SHS exposure. Having visitors who smoke was the greatest policy enforcement challenge. Ineffective measures such as opening windows were more commonly used in homes with partial bans. Educational initiatives to protect against SHS exposure in the home should promote smoke-free homes, address challenges to implementing such policies, and address misconceptions regarding the effectiveness of supposed harm reduction behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control)
Open AccessArticle Surveying Mercury Levels in Hair, Blood and Urine of under 7-Year Old Children from a Coastal City in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 12029-12041; doi:10.3390/ijerph111112029
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aim: The average mercury load in children under 7-years old was determined in a populated but not overly industrial coastal area in China. Methods: 395 blood samples, 1072 urine samples, and 581 hair samples were collected from 1076 children, aged 0
[...] Read more.
Aim: The average mercury load in children under 7-years old was determined in a populated but not overly industrial coastal area in China. Methods: 395 blood samples, 1072 urine samples, and 581 hair samples were collected from 1076 children, aged 0 to 6 years, from eight representative communities of Xiamen, China. Mercury levels in the samples were surveyed. Results: The 95% upper limits of mercury in blood, urine, and hair for the children were 2.30, 1.50 and 2100.00 μg/kg, respectively. Levels tended to increase with age. Correlation analyses showed that mercury levels in blood and urine correlated with those in hair (n = 132), r = 0.49, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.20, p = 0.0008; however, blood mercury levels did not correlate with urine levels (n = 284), r = 0.07, p = 0.35. Conclusions: Surveying the average mercury load in children 0 to 6 years, and the 95% upper limit value of mercury in their blood, urine, and hair should help guide risk assessment and health management for children. Full article
Open AccessArticle Tuberculosis among Healthcare Workers in Southeastern China: A Retrospective Study of 7-Year Surveillance Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 12042-12052; doi:10.3390/ijerph111112042
Received: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1039 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The baseline prevalence and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) among general healthcare workers (HCWs) in southeastern China remains unknown. We conducted a retrospective study based on the TB surveillance data in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2011, which were extracted from the national Tuberculosis
[...] Read more.
The baseline prevalence and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) among general healthcare workers (HCWs) in southeastern China remains unknown. We conducted a retrospective study based on the TB surveillance data in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2011, which were extracted from the national Tuberculosis Information Management System (TIMS). We calculated and compared annual notification rates of different occupational groups and analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The annual TB notification rates among general HCWs declined steadily from 2005 to 2011. On average, HCWs showed annual TB notification rates lower than the general population but higher than teachers. Recorded HCW TB patients averaged 35.5 years of age, with females outnumbering males (58.0% > 42.0%). The proportion of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) was higher among male than in the female patients (88.5% > 83.4%, P = 0.031). Our study suggested that general HCWs run a higher occupational risk than teachers although the two groups are socioeconomically comparable and that the priority should be given to the young female HCWs for TB prevention in healthcare institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Open AccessCommunication Barriers and Facilitators to Being Physically Active on a Rural U.S. Northern Plains American Indian Reservation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 12053-12063; doi:10.3390/ijerph111112053
Received: 17 September 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity among American Indian adults living on a rural, U.S. Northern Plains reservation using the nominal group technique (NGT). NGT is a method of data generation and interpretation
[...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity among American Indian adults living on a rural, U.S. Northern Plains reservation using the nominal group technique (NGT). NGT is a method of data generation and interpretation that combines aspects of qualitative (free generation of responses) and quantitative (systematic ranking of responses) methodologies. Adults participated in one of two NGT sessions asking about either barriers to (n = 6), or facilitators of (n = 5), being physically active. Participants nominated and ranked 21 barriers and 18 facilitators. Barriers indicated lack of knowledge of how to fit physical activity into a daily schedule, work, caring for family members, and prioritizing sedentary pursuits. Other responses included environmental barriers such as lack of access and transportation to a gym, unsafe walking conditions, and inclement weather. Facilitators to following recommendations included knowledge of health benefits of physical activity and the perception of physical activity as enjoyable, including feeling good when working out. Environmental facilitators included being outdoors walking and biking as well as parks and exercise facilities. Responses provided direction for locally designed community-based programs to promote facilitators and decrease barriers to individual’s engagement in physical activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Optimization Study of Small-Scale Solar Membrane Distillation Desalination Systems (s-SMDDS)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 12064-12087; doi:10.3390/ijerph111112064
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 24 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Membrane distillation (MD), which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS) is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS) is an
[...] Read more.
Membrane distillation (MD), which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS) is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS) is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determined by a systematic method, which involves a pseudo-steady-state approach for equipment sizing and dynamic optimization using overall system mathematical models. Two s-SMDDS employing an air gap membrane distillation module with membrane areas of 11.5 m2 and 23 m2 are analyzed. The lowest water production costs are $5.92/m3 and $5.16/m3 for water production rates of 500 kg/day and 1000 kg/day, respectively. For these two optimal cases, the performance ratios are 0.85 and 0.91; the recovery ratios are 4.07% and 4.57%. The effect of membrane characteristics on the production cost is investigated. For the commercial membrane employed in this study, the increase of the membrane mass transfer coefficient up to two times is beneficial for cost reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Desalination)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

Open AccessReview Setting the One Health Agenda and the Human–Companion Animal Bond
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11110-11120; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111110
Received: 1 September 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 27 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
“One Health”, also called “One Medicine”, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from
[...] Read more.
“One Health”, also called “One Medicine”, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB) as it relates to healthcare in these areas. Full article
Open AccessReview Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11192-11200; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111192
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 2 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 28 October 2014
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be
[...] Read more.
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarettes as a Tool in Tobacco Harm Reduction)
Open AccessReview Mobile Phone-Based mHealth Approaches for Public Health Surveillance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11559-11582; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111559
Received: 8 July 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for
[...] Read more.
Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM), BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC), the Public Library of Science (PLoS) and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3), tuberculosis (n = 1) and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1) as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2), maternal health (n = 1) and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1). Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region. Full article
Open AccessReview Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11772-11804; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111772
Received: 25 July 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 29 October 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted
[...] Read more.
Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. Full article
Open AccessReview The Impact of the FIFA 11+ Training Program on Injury Prevention in Football Players: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11986-12000; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111986
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (695 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost
[...] Read more.
The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms “FIFA 11+”, “football”, “soccer”, “injury prevention”, and “The 11”. The titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers and the data were filtered by one reviewer using a standardized extraction form and thereafter checked by another one. The risk of bias and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated through the PEDro score and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). A total of 911 studies were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria of the review. The FIFA 11+ has demonstrated how a simple exercise program completed as part of warm-up can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. In general, considerable reductions in the number of injured players, ranging between 30% and 70%, have been observed among the teams that implemented the FIFA 11+. In addition, players with high compliance to the FIFA 11+ program had an estimated risk reduction of all injuries by 35% and show significant improvements in components of neuromuscular and motor performance when participating in structured warm-up sessions at least 1.5 times/week. Most studies had high methodological quality and a low risk of bias. Given the large number of people who play football at amateur level and the detrimental impact of sports injuries on a personal and societal level, the FIFA 11+ can be considered as a fundamental tool to minimize the risks of participation in a sport with substantial health benefits. Full article

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Review

Open AccessCorrection Correction: Whiley, H., et al. Detection of Legionella, L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) along Potable Water Distribution Pipelines. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7393–7405
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11418-11420; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111418
Received: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 3 November 2014
PDF Full-text (599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The authors wish to add the following amendments and corrections to their paper published in IJERPH [1].Page 7398, Table 1: The average water temperature measured in summer is 24.3 °C not 4.3 °C. The correct Table 1 should therefore be: [...] Full article
Open AccessDiscussion Alcoholism Risk Reduction in France: A Modernised Approach Related to Alcohol Misuse Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11664-11675; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111664
Received: 11 July 2014 / Revised: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages
[...] Read more.
During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men) or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Abuse: Newer Approaches to an Old Problem)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJERPH Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJERPH Edit a special issue Review for IJERPH
loading...
Back to Top