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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11805-11821; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111805

Factors Contributing to the Risk of HIV Infection in Rural School-Going Adolescents

1
Faculty of Community and Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535, South Africa
2
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2014 / Revised: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the factors that increase the risk of HIV infection in rural school-going adolescents and young adults. This was a cross-sectional study of 430 secondary school students (47.4% boys and 52.6% girls) from two rural schools in South Africa. Data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire on demographic information, sources of HIV/AIDS information, HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, communication and negotiation skills, self-efficacy to refuse sex, peer influence and time perspective. Out of 113 (27.2%) participants who reported being sexually active, about 48% reported having had sex before the age of 15 and 42.2% reported penetrative sex with more than one partner in their lifetime. Only 44.8% of them reported consistent and regular use of condoms for every sexual encounter. Peer influence (OR = 3.01 (95% CI = 1.97–4.60)), gender difference (OR = 6.60 (95% CI = 1.62–26.84)) and lack of HIV information (OR = 1.22 (95% CI = 1.03–1.44)) influenced the sexual risk behaviors of the adolescents. Greater numbers of school-going adolescents in rural areas are sexually active. Peer influence, especially in boys, is a factor that increases the preponderance of risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Positively, adolescents with high knowledge of HIV infection are more likely to use condoms for every sexual encounter. There is a need to strengthen comprehensive sexual health education and youth-friendly HIV prevention strategies to promote abstinence and safe sexual behaviors, especially among boys. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV infection; rural adolescents; risky sexual behaviors; risk factors; South Africa HIV infection; rural adolescents; risky sexual behaviors; risk factors; South Africa
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Awotidebe, A.; Phillips, J.; Lens, W. Factors Contributing to the Risk of HIV Infection in Rural School-Going Adolescents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 11805-11821.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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