Next Article in Journal
Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities
Previous Article in Journal
Barriers and Facilitators to Being Physically Active on a Rural U.S. Northern Plains American Indian Reservation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 12064-12087; doi:10.3390/ijerph111112064

Optimization Study of Small-Scale Solar Membrane Distillation Desalination Systems (s-SMDDS)

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 24 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Desalination)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2200 KB, uploaded 24 November 2014]   |  


Membrane distillation (MD), which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS) is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS) is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determined by a systematic method, which involves a pseudo-steady-state approach for equipment sizing and dynamic optimization using overall system mathematical models. Two s-SMDDS employing an air gap membrane distillation module with membrane areas of 11.5 m2 and 23 m2 are analyzed. The lowest water production costs are $5.92/m3 and $5.16/m3 for water production rates of 500 kg/day and 1000 kg/day, respectively. For these two optimal cases, the performance ratios are 0.85 and 0.91; the recovery ratios are 4.07% and 4.57%. The effect of membrane characteristics on the production cost is investigated. For the commercial membrane employed in this study, the increase of the membrane mass transfer coefficient up to two times is beneficial for cost reduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: solar energy; desalination; membrane distillation; optimization; dynamic modeling solar energy; desalination; membrane distillation; optimization; dynamic modeling

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, H.; Chang, C.-L.; Hung, C.-Y.; Cheng, T.-W.; Ho, C.-D. Optimization Study of Small-Scale Solar Membrane Distillation Desalination Systems (s-SMDDS). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 12064-12087.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top