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Special Issue "Proceedings of 1st Latin American Congress of Clinical and Laboratorial Toxicology (Toxi-Latin 2014)"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (21 July 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Solange Cristina Garcia

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Farmácia, Laboratório de Toxicologia. Av Ipiranga 2752, Porto Alegre, RS, 90610000, Brazil
Fax: +55 51 3308 5437
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Daiana Silva Ávila

Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus Uruguaiana. Br 472, Km 592, PO Box 118. Uruguaiana, RS, 97500970, Brazil

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special issue will collect selected papers presented at the 1st Latin American Congress of Clinical and Laboratorial Toxicology (Toxi-Latin 2014): http://toxilatin.com/?lang=en, in Porto Alegre, Brazil, April 27-30th, 2014.

Selected Topics:

  • Clinical and Laboratorial Toxicology
  • Nanotoxicology
  • Occupational/ Environmental Toxicology/Ecotoxicology
  • Oxidative stress or other toxicants mechanism
  • Alternative models in Toxicology
  • Genotoxicology/Mutagenicity
  • Neurotoxicology

Prof. Dr. Solange Cristina Garcia
Prof. Dr. Daiana SIlva Ávila
Guest Editors

Submission

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is for this special issue 600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Histological Changes in Gills of Two Fish Species as Indicators of Water Quality in Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(12), 12927-12937; doi:10.3390/ijerph111212927
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (9341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water quality of the Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil) was assessed through histological biomarkers and microbiological parameters. To this end, 29 fish specimens (11 Centropomus undecimalis and 18 Sardinella sp) and eight water samples were collected during the rainy and [...] Read more.
Water quality of the Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil) was assessed through histological biomarkers and microbiological parameters. To this end, 29 fish specimens (11 Centropomus undecimalis and 18 Sardinella sp) and eight water samples were collected during the rainy and dry periods of 2013. The lagoon water showed thermotolerant coliform indices above the limit set forth in CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Histological changes observed in the gills were: lifting of the respiratory epithelium, hyperplasia of the lamellar epithelium, incomplete and complete fusion of several lamellae, disorganization of the lamellae, congestion of blood vessels, aneurysms, hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium, hemorrhage and rupture of the lamellar epithelium and parasite. The histological alteration index (HAI) average value to Sardinella sp was 31.8 and to C. undecimalis was 22.2. The average HAI value in both species corresponds to category 21–50, with tissue injuries being classified from moderate to severe. The presence of histological injuries and the HAI values indicate that the fish sampled from the Jansen Lagoon are reacting to non-specific xenobiotics present at the site. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Physical, Chemical, and Immunohistochemical Investigation of the Damage to Salivary Glands in a Model of Intoxication with Aluminium Citrate
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(12), 12429-12440; doi:10.3390/ijerph111212429
Received: 24 July 2014 / Revised: 9 October 2014 / Accepted: 23 October 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
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Abstract
Aluminum absorption leads to deposits in several tissues. In this study, we have investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, aluminum deposition in the salivary glands in addition to the resultant cellular changes in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands in [...] Read more.
Aluminum absorption leads to deposits in several tissues. In this study, we have investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, aluminum deposition in the salivary glands in addition to the resultant cellular changes in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands in a model of chronic intoxication with aluminum citrate in rats. Aluminum deposits were observed in the parotid and submandibular glands. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cytokeratin-18 revealed a decreased expression in the parotid gland with no changes in the submandibular gland. A decreased expression of α-smooth muscle actin was observed in the myoepithelial cells of both glands. The expression of metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II), a group of metal-binding proteins, which are useful indicators for detecting physiological responses to metal exposure, was higher in both glands. In conclusion, we have shown that at a certain time and quantity of dosage, aluminum citrate promotes aluminum deposition in the parotid and submandibular glands, leads to an increased expression of MT-I/II in both the glands, damages the cytoskeleton of the myoepithelial cells in both glands, and damages the cytoskeleton of the acinar/ductal cells of the parotid glands, with the submandibular glands showing resistance to the toxicity of the latter. Full article
Open AccessArticle Liver δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Inhibited by Neonicotinoids and Restored by Antioxidant Agents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11676-11690; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111676
Received: 18 July 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neonicotinoids represent the most used class of insecticides worldwide, and their precursor, imidacloprid, is the most widely marketed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of imidacloprid on the activity of hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), protective effect of potential [...] Read more.
Neonicotinoids represent the most used class of insecticides worldwide, and their precursor, imidacloprid, is the most widely marketed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of imidacloprid on the activity of hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), protective effect of potential antioxidants against this potential effect and presence of chemical elements in the constitution of this pesticide. We observed that δ-ALA-D activity was significantly inhibited by imidacloprid at all concentrations tested in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value was obtained and used to evaluate the restoration of the enzymatic activity. δ-ALA-D inhibition was completely restored by addition of dithiotreitol (DTT) and partly by ZnCl2, demonstrating that the inhibition occurs by oxidation of thiol groups and by displacement of the Zn (II), which can be explained by the presence of chemical elements found in the constitution of pesticides. Reduced glutathione (GSH) had the best antioxidant effect against to δ-ALA-D inhibition caused by imidacloprid, followed by curcumin and resveratrol. It is well known that inhibition of the enzyme δ-ALA-D may result in accumulation of its neurotoxic substrate (δ-ALA), in this line, our results suggest that further studies are needed to investigate the possible neurotoxicity induced by neonicotinoids and the involvement of antioxidants in cases of poisoning by neonicotinoids. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Mobility, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Pb and Cd in Contaminated Soil Using TCLP, BCR and Earthworms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11528-11540; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111528
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 7 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the reduction of mobility, availability and toxicity found in soil contaminated with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from Santo Amaro Municipality, Bahia, Brazil using two combined methods, commonly tested separately according to the [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the reduction of mobility, availability and toxicity found in soil contaminated with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from Santo Amaro Municipality, Bahia, Brazil using two combined methods, commonly tested separately according to the literature: metal mobilization with phosphates and phytoextraction. The strategy applied was the treatment with two sources of phosphates (separately and mixed) followed by phytoremediation with vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)). The treatments applied (in triplicates) were: T1—potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4); T2—reactive natural phosphate fertilizer (NRP) and; T3—a mixture 1:1 of KH2PO4 and NRP. After this step, untreated and treated soils were planted with vetiver grass. The extraction procedures and assays applied to contaminated soil before and after the treatments included metal mobility test (TCLP); sequential extraction with BCR method; toxicity assays with Eisenia andrei. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) for Pb and Cd were estimated in all cases. All treatments with phosphates followed by phytoremediation reduced the mobility and availability of Pb and Cd, being KH2PO4 (T1) plus phytoremediation the most effective one. Soil toxicity however, remained high after all treatments. Full article
Open AccessArticle Multivariate Optimization for Extraction of Pyrethroids in Milk and Validation for GC-ECD and CG-MS/MS Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11421-11437; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111421
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
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Abstract
A simple and inexpensive method based on solvent extraction followed by low temperature clean-up was applied for determination of seven pyrethroids residues in bovine raw milk using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography with electron-capture detector (GC-ECD). [...] Read more.
A simple and inexpensive method based on solvent extraction followed by low temperature clean-up was applied for determination of seven pyrethroids residues in bovine raw milk using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography with electron-capture detector (GC-ECD). Sample extraction procedure was established through the evaluation of seven different extraction protocols, evaluated in terms of analyte recovery and cleanup efficiency. Sample preparation optimization was based on Doehlert design using fifteen runs with three different variables. Response surface methodologies and polynomial analysis were used to define the best extraction conditions. Method validation was carried out based on SANCO guide parameters and assessed by multivariate analysis. Method performance was considered satisfactory since mean recoveries were between 87% and 101% for three distinct concentrations. Accuracy and precision were lower than ±20%, and led to no significant differences (p < 0.05) between results obtained by GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS techniques. The method has been applied to routine analysis for determination of pyrethroid residues in bovine raw milk in the Brazilian National Residue Control Plan since 2013, in which a total of 50 samples were analyzed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11438-11449; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111438
Received: 3 July 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
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Abstract
Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult [...] Read more.
Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ≤ 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ≤ 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ≤ 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10806-10823; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010806
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 9 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern [...] Read more.
Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. Full article
Open AccessArticle Are Delta-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Inhibition and Metal Concentrations Additional Factors for the Age-Related Cognitive Decline?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10851-10867; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010851
Received: 16 June 2014 / Revised: 16 September 2014 / Accepted: 25 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aging is often accompanied by cognitive impairments and influenced by oxidative status and chemical imbalances. Thus, this study was conducted to examine whether age-related cognitive deficit is associated with oxidative damage, especially with inhibition of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), as well [...] Read more.
Aging is often accompanied by cognitive impairments and influenced by oxidative status and chemical imbalances. Thus, this study was conducted to examine whether age-related cognitive deficit is associated with oxidative damage, especially with inhibition of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), as well as to verify the influence of some metals in the enzyme activity and cognitive performance. Blood ALA-D activity, essential (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) and non-essential metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, V) were measured in 50 elderly and 20 healthy young subjects. Cognitive function was assessed by tests from Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) battery and other. The elderly group presented decreased ALA-D activity compared to the young group. The index of ALA-D reactivation was similar to both study groups, but negatively associated with metals. The mean levels of essential metals were within the reference values, while the most toxic metals were above them in both groups. Cognitive function impairments were observed in elderly group and were associated with decreased ALA-D activity, with lower levels of Se and higher levels of toxic metals (Hg and V). Results suggest that the reduced ALA-D activity in elderly can be an additional factor involved in cognitive decline, since its inhibition throughout life could lead to accumulation of the neurotoxic compound ALA. Toxic metals were found to contribute to cognitive decline and also to influence ALA-D reactivation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Genomic Instability in Human Lymphocytes from Male Users of Crack Cocaine
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10003-10015; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010003
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 28 August 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
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Abstract
Recent research suggests that crack cocaine use alters systemic biochemical markers, like oxidative damage and inflammation markers, but very few studies have assessed the potential effects of crack cocaine at the cellular level. We assessed genome instability by means of the comet [...] Read more.
Recent research suggests that crack cocaine use alters systemic biochemical markers, like oxidative damage and inflammation markers, but very few studies have assessed the potential effects of crack cocaine at the cellular level. We assessed genome instability by means of the comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus technique in crack cocaine users at the time of admission to a rehabilitation clinic and at two times after the beginning of withdrawal. Thirty one active users of crack cocaine and forty control subjects were evaluated. Comparison between controls and crack cocaine users at the first analysis showed significant differences in the rates of DNA damage (p = 0.037). The frequency of micronuclei (MN) (p < 0.001) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) (p < 0.001) was increased, but not the frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) (p = 0.089). DNA damage decreased only after the end of treatment (p < 0.001). Micronuclei frequency did not decrease after treatment, and nuclear buds increased substantially. The results of this study reveal the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of crack cocaine use in human lymphocytes and pave the way for further research on cellular responses and the possible consequences of DNA damage, such as induction of irreversible neurological disease and cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle In vitro and in vivo Effects of Free and Chalcones-Loaded Nanoemulsions: Insights and Challenges in Targeted Cancer Chemotherapies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10016-10035; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010016
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 29 August 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Several obstacles are encountered in conventional chemotherapy, such as drug toxicity and poor stability. Nanotechnology is envisioned as a strategy to overcome these effects and to improve anticancer therapy. Nanoemulsions comprise submicron emulsions composed of biocompatible lipids, and present a large surface [...] Read more.
Several obstacles are encountered in conventional chemotherapy, such as drug toxicity and poor stability. Nanotechnology is envisioned as a strategy to overcome these effects and to improve anticancer therapy. Nanoemulsions comprise submicron emulsions composed of biocompatible lipids, and present a large surface area revealing interesting physical properties. Chalcones are flavonoid precursors, and have been studied as cytotoxic drugs for leukemia cells that induce cell death by different apoptosis pathways. In this study, we encapsulated chalcones in a nanoemulsion and compared their effect with the respective free compounds in leukemia and in non-tumoral cell lines, as well as in an in vivo model. Free and loaded-nanoemulsion chalcones induced a similar anti-leukemic effect. Free chalcones induced higher toxicity in VERO cells than chalcones-loaded nanoemulsions. Similar results were observed in vivo. Free chalcones induced a reduction in weight gain and liver injuries, evidenced by oxidative stress, as well as an inflammatory response. Considering the high toxicity and the side effects induced generally by all cancer chemotherapies, nanotechnology provides some options for improving patients’ life quality and/or increasing survival rates. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ilex paraguariensis Extract Increases Lifespan and Protects Against the Toxic Effects Caused by Paraquat in Caenorhabditis elegans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10091-10104; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010091
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 16 September 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
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Abstract
Recent studies have shown that phenolic compounds present in yerba mate have antioxidant defense properties. To verify whether Ilex paraguariensis extracts are capable of increasing the lifespan of an organism, we have used the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Notably, this is [...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that phenolic compounds present in yerba mate have antioxidant defense properties. To verify whether Ilex paraguariensis extracts are capable of increasing the lifespan of an organism, we have used the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Notably, this is the first study that analyzes the effects of the extracts of yerba mate obtained from an extraction method that mimics the manner that the plant is consumed by the population by using a live organism. Yerba mate was purchased from commercial markets from Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Ilex paraguariensis extracts significantly increased the life span of C. elegans. Moreover, the extracts reduced the ROS levels per se, and protected from the reduced survival and reproduction rate induced by paraquat exposure. Considering molecular aspects, we observed that the worms pretreated with the extracts depicted higher translocation of the transcription factor DAF-16::GFP to the nucleus. However, there was no increase in the levels of the DAF-16 target genes, SOD-3 and catalase. Our results suggest that the increase of lifespan caused by the different extracts is associated to the antioxidant potential of yerba mate, however this effect is not completely mediated by daf-16. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Effects of Chronic Intoxication with Inorganic Mercury on Memory and Motor Control in Rats
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 9171-9185; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909171
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 19 August 2014 / Accepted: 28 August 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
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Abstract
The aims of this study were to evaluate whether chronic intoxication with mercury chloride (HgCl2), in a low concentration over a long time, can be deposited in the central nervous tissue and to determine if this exposure induces motor and [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to evaluate whether chronic intoxication with mercury chloride (HgCl2), in a low concentration over a long time, can be deposited in the central nervous tissue and to determine if this exposure induces motor and cognitive impairments. Twenty animals were intoxicated for 45 days at a dose of 0.375 mg/kg/day. After this period, the animals underwent a battery of behavioral tests, in a sequence of open field, social recognition, elevated T maze and rotarod tests. They were then sacrificed, their brains collected and the motor cortex and hippocampus dissected for quantification of mercury deposited. This study demonstrates that long-term chronic HgCl2 intoxication in rats promotes functional damage. Exposure to HgCl2 induced anxiety-related responses, short- and long-term memory impairments and motor deficits. Additionally, HgCl2 accumulated in both the hippocampus and cortex of the brain with a higher affinity for the cortex. Full article
Open AccessArticle Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Acute Myocardial Infarction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 9024-9037; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909024
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 1 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association [...] Read more.
Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and exogenous antioxidants) and the inflammatory biomarker (hs-CRP) were analyzed. 1-OHP levels were increased in post-infarct patients compared to controls (p < 0.05) and were correlated to MDA (r = 0.426, p < 0.01), CAT (r = 0.474, p < 0.001) and β-carotene (r = −0.309; p < 0.05) in non-smokers. Furthermore, post-infarction patients had elevated hs-CRP, MDA, CAT and GPx levels compared to controls for both smokers and non-smokers. Besides, β-carotene levels and SOD activity were decreased in post-infarction patients. In summary, our findings indicate that the exposure to pyrenes was associated to lipid damage and alterations of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, demonstrating that PAHs contribute to oxidative stress and are associated to acute myocardial infarction. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Comparison of the Human Buccal Cell Assay and the Pollen Abortion Assay in Assessing Genotoxicity in an Urban-Rural Gradient
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 8825-8838; doi:10.3390/ijerph110908825
Received: 18 July 2014 / Revised: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 21 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
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Abstract
Air pollution is exacerbated near heavy traffic roads in cities. Air pollution concentration and composition vary by region and depend on urban-rural gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of air pollution in areas of varying population densities [...] Read more.
Air pollution is exacerbated near heavy traffic roads in cities. Air pollution concentration and composition vary by region and depend on urban-rural gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of air pollution in areas of varying population densities and to compare plant biomonitoring with an established biomarker of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children. The areas of study were selected near a major street in 3 different regions. Areas A, B and C represent high, intermediate and low population densities, respectively. Micronucleus assay, an established biomarker of human exposure, was performed in children from these areas. For a plant biomonitoring assay, the pollen abortion assay was performed on Bauhinia variegata in these areas. NO2 and O3 concentrations were determined by passive sampling. We report here that the pollen abortion frequency in Bauhinia variegata is correlated with NO2 concentration (P = 0.004) and is strongly associated with vehicular flow and population density in the studied areas. Micronuclei frequency in buccal cells of children was higher in the regions with more degree of urbanization (P < 0.001) following the same pattern of O3 concentrations (P = 0.030). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high concentrations of air pollutants in Porto Alegre are related to both human and plant genotoxicity. Areas with different concentration of pollutants demonstrated to have an urbanization gradient dependent pattern which also reflected on genotoxic damage among these areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of Surfactant and Lipid Type on the Physicochemical Properties and Biocompatibility of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 8581-8596; doi:10.3390/ijerph110808581
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
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Abstract
Nine types of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulations were produced using tripalmitin (TPM), glyceryl monostearate (GM) or stearic acid (SA), stabilized with lecithin S75 and polysorbate 80. Formulations were prepared presenting PI values within 0.25 to 0.30, and the physicochemical properties, stability [...] Read more.
Nine types of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulations were produced using tripalmitin (TPM), glyceryl monostearate (GM) or stearic acid (SA), stabilized with lecithin S75 and polysorbate 80. Formulations were prepared presenting PI values within 0.25 to 0.30, and the physicochemical properties, stability upon storage and biocompatibility were evaluated. The average particle size ranged from 116 to 306 nm, with a negative surface charge around −11 mV. SLN presented good stability up to 60 days. The SLN manufactured using SA could not be measured by DLS due to the reflective feature of this formulation. However, TEM images revealed that SA nanoparticles presented square/rod shapes with an approximate size of 100 nm. Regarding biocompatibility aspects, SA nanoparticles showed toxicity in fibroblasts, causing cell death, and produced high hemolytic rates, indicating toxicity to red blood cells. This finding might be related to lipid type, as well as, the shape of the nanoparticles. No morphological alterations and hemolytic effects were observed in cells incubated with SLN containing TPM and GM. The SLN containing TPM and GM showed long-term stability, suggesting good shelf-life. The results indicate high toxicity of SLN prepared with SA, and strongly suggest that the components of the formulation should be analyzed in combination rather than separately to avoid misinterpretation of the results. Full article

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