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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2014), Pages 9938-11027

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Open AccessArticle Impact of Oral Health Behaviors on Dental Caries in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Guangzhou, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 11015-11027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111011015
Received: 6 August 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dental care is consistently reported as one of the primary medical needs of children with disabilities (IDC). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of oral health behaviors on the caries experience in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou,
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Dental care is consistently reported as one of the primary medical needs of children with disabilities (IDC). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of oral health behaviors on the caries experience in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 intellectually disabled children, 12 to 17 years old, who were randomly selected from special educational schools in Guangzhou. A self-administered parental questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and oral health behavior variables, and 450 valid questionnaires were returned. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with dental caries. The average age of those in the sample was 14.6 years (SD = 1.3), 68.4% of whom were male, and the caries prevalence rate was 53.5% (DMFT = 1.5 ± 2.0). The factors significantly affecting the development of dental caries in IDC included gender, the presence or absence of cerebral palsy, and the frequency of dental visits and toothbrushing. In conclusion, the presence of cerebral palsy contributed to an increase risk of caries experience in intellectually disabled children, while toothbrushing more than twice a day and routine dental visits were caries-protective factors. Oral health promotion action may lead to a reduction in dental caries levels in IDC. Full article
Open AccessArticle Screening for Infectious Diseases among Newly Arrived Migrants in EU/EEA Countries—Varying Practices but Consensus on the Utility of Screening
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 11004-11014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111011004
Received: 2 September 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Screening is one possible tool for monitoring infectious diseases among migrants. However, there is limited information on screening programmes targeted for newly arrived migrants in EU/EEA countries. Our aim was to investigate the implementation, practices and usefulness of these programmes. We conducted a
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Screening is one possible tool for monitoring infectious diseases among migrants. However, there is limited information on screening programmes targeted for newly arrived migrants in EU/EEA countries. Our aim was to investigate the implementation, practices and usefulness of these programmes. We conducted a survey among country experts from EU/EEA countries and Switzerland, asking whether their countries had implemented screening programmes. We also estimated the association between the implementation of these programmes and the rate of asylum-seekers in the population. Of the countries, 16 (59%) had implemented screening programmes and 15 (56%) had national guidelines. The rate of asylum-seekers was associated with implementation of screening programmes (p = 0.014). Screening was performed most often for tuberculosis; most commonly on holding level, and was targeted to specific migrant groups in over half of the countries performing screening. Twenty-five of all the country experts (96%) considered screening among migrants useful, and 24 (92%) would welcome EU level guidelines for screening. The implementation of screening programmes varied, and the practices were different among countries. Our survey suggests, that establishing EU level guidelines for screening would be useful, although they would have to take into account differences between individual countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migrant Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Study of External Dose Rate and Retained Body Activity of Patients Receiving 131I Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10991-11003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010991
Received: 13 August 2014 / Revised: 9 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
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Abstract
Radiation safety is an integral part of targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of this work was to study the external dose rate and retained body activity as functions of time in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients receiving 131I therapy. Seventy patients were stratified
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Radiation safety is an integral part of targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of this work was to study the external dose rate and retained body activity as functions of time in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients receiving 131I therapy. Seventy patients were stratified into two groups: the ablation group (A) and the follow-up group (FU). The patients’ external dose rate was measured, and simultaneously, their retained body radiation activity was monitored at various time points. The equations of the external dose rate and the retained body activity, described as a function of hours post administration, were fitted. Additionally, the release time for patients was calculated. The reduction in activity in the group receiving a second or subsequent treatment was more rapid than the group receiving only the initial treatment. Most important, an expeditious method was established to indirectly evaluate the retained body activity of patients by measuring the external dose rate with a portable radiation survey meter. By this method, the calculated external dose rate limits are 19.2, 8.85, 5.08 and 2.32 μSv·h1 at 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m, respectively, according to a patient’s released threshold level of retained body activity <400 MBq. This study is beneficial for radiation safety decision-making. Full article
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Open AccessReview New Roles for Pharmacists in Community Mental Health Care: A Narrative Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10967-10990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010967
Received: 16 July 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 7 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Medicines are a major treatment modality for many mental illnesses, and with the growing burden of mental disorders worldwide pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a greater role in supporting people with a mental illness. This narrative review aims to describe the evidence
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Medicines are a major treatment modality for many mental illnesses, and with the growing burden of mental disorders worldwide pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a greater role in supporting people with a mental illness. This narrative review aims to describe the evidence for pharmacist-delivered services in mental health care and address the barriers and facilitators to increasing the uptake of pharmacist services as part of the broader mental health care team. This narrative review is divided into three main sections: (1) the role of the pharmacist in mental health care in multidisciplinary teams and in supporting early detection of mental illness; (2) the pharmacists’ role in supporting quality use of medicines in medication review, strategies to improve medication adherence and antipsychotic polypharmacy, and shared decision making; and (3) barriers and facilitators to the implementation of mental health pharmacy services with a focus on organizational culture and mental health stigma. In the first section, the review presents new roles for pharmacists within multidisciplinary teams, such as in case conferencing or collaborative drug therapy management; and new roles that would benefit from increased pharmacist involvement, such as the early detection of mental health conditions, development of care plans and follow up of people with mental health problems. The second section describes the impact of medication review services and other pharmacist-led interventions designed to reduce inappropriate use of psychotropic medicines and improve medication adherence. Other new potential roles discussed include the management of antipsychotic polypharmacy and involvement in patient-centered care. Finally, barriers related to pharmacists’ attitudes, stigma and skills in the care of patients with mental health problems and barriers affecting pharmacist-physician collaboration are described, along with strategies to reduce mental health stigma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Care)
Open AccessConcept Paper Effects of Non-Differential Exposure Misclassification on False Conclusions in Hypothesis-Generating Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10951-10966; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010951
Received: 11 June 2014 / Revised: 11 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Despite the theoretical success of obviating the need for hypothesis-generating studies, they live on in epidemiological practice. Cole asserted that “… there is boundless number of hypotheses that could be generated, nearly all of them wrong” and urged us to focus on evaluating
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Despite the theoretical success of obviating the need for hypothesis-generating studies, they live on in epidemiological practice. Cole asserted that “… there is boundless number of hypotheses that could be generated, nearly all of them wrong” and urged us to focus on evaluating “credibility of hypothesis”. Adopting a Bayesian approach, we put this elegant logic into quantitative terms at the study planning stage for studies where the prior belief in the null hypothesis is high (i.e., “hypothesis-generating” studies). We consider not only type I and II errors (as is customary) but also the probabilities of false positive and negative results, taking into account typical imperfections in the data. We concentrate on a common source of imperfection in the data: non-differential misclassification of binary exposure classifier. In context of an unmatched case-control study, we demonstrate—both theoretically and via simulations—that although non-differential exposure misclassification is expected to attenuate real effect estimates, leading to the loss of ability to detect true effects, there is also a concurrent increase in false positives. Unfortunately, most investigators interpret their findings from such work as being biased towards the null rather than considering that they are no less likely to be false signals. The likelihood of false positives dwarfed the false negative rate under a wide range of studied settings. We suggest that instead of investing energy into understanding credibility of dubious hypotheses, applied disciplines such as epidemiology, should instead focus attention on understanding consequences of pursuing specific hypotheses, while accounting for the probability that the observed “statistically significant” association may be qualitatively spurious. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methodological Innovations and Reflections-1)
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Open AccessArticle Secular Trends in Habitual Physical Activities of Mozambican Children and Adolescents from Maputo City
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10940-10950; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010940
Received: 25 August 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Social and economic changes occurring in the last two decades in Mozambique may have induced lifestyle changes among youth. This study aimed to document secular changes in habitual physical activities of Mozambican youth between 1992, 1999 and 2012. A total of 3393 youth
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Social and economic changes occurring in the last two decades in Mozambique may have induced lifestyle changes among youth. This study aimed to document secular changes in habitual physical activities of Mozambican youth between 1992, 1999 and 2012. A total of 3393 youth (eight–15 years), were measured in three different time periods (1992, 1999, 2012). Habitual physical activity (PA) was estimated with a questionnaire, including items related to household chores, sport participation, traditional games and walking activities. Biological maturation was assessed. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare mean differences in PA across the years. Significant decreases between 1992–1999 and 1992–2012 were observed for boys in household chores, games and walking, and a significant decline between 1999 and 2012 was found in sport participation. Among girls, a significant and consistent decline (1992 > 1999 > 2012) was observed for household chores, a decline between 1992–1999 and 1992–2012 for games and walking, and a significant increase between 1992 and 1999 in sport participation. In general, a negative secular trend was found in habitual PA among Mozambican youth. Interventions aimed at increasing PA represent important educational and public health opportunities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Horizon 2020 Priorities in Clinical Mental Health Research: Results of a Consensus-Based ROAMER Expert Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10915-10939; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010915
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 19 September 2014 / Accepted: 30 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Within the ROAMER project, which aims to provide a Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe, a two-stage Delphi survey among 86 European experts was conducted in order to identify research priorities in clinical mental health research. Expert consensus existed with regard to
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Within the ROAMER project, which aims to provide a Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe, a two-stage Delphi survey among 86 European experts was conducted in order to identify research priorities in clinical mental health research. Expert consensus existed with regard to the importance of three challenges in the field of clinical mental health research: (1) the development of new, safe and effective interventions for mental disorders; (2) understanding the mechanisms of disease in order to be able to develop such new interventions; and (3) defining outcomes (an improved set of outcomes, including alternative outcomes) to use for clinical mental health research evaluation. Proposed actions involved increasing the utilization of tailored approaches (personalized medicine), developing blended eHealth/mHealth decision aids/guidance tools that help the clinician to choose between various treatment modalities, developing specific treatments in order to better target comorbidity and (further) development of biological, psychological and psychopharmacological interventions. The experts indicated that addressing these priorities will result in increased efficacy and impact across Europe; with a high probability of success, given that Europe has important strengths, such as skilled academics and a long research history. Finally, the experts stressed the importance of creating funding and coordinated networking as essential action needed in order to target the variety of challenges in clinical mental health research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Care)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasensitive UPLC-MS-MS Method for the Quantitation of Etheno-DNA Adducts in Human Urine
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10902-10914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010902
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 7 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Etheno-DNA adducts are generated from the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous lipid peroxidation. We and others have previously reported that 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3,N4-ethenodeoxycytidine (εdC) are present in human urine and can be utilized as biomarkers
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Etheno-DNA adducts are generated from the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous lipid peroxidation. We and others have previously reported that 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3,N4-ethenodeoxycytidine (εdC) are present in human urine and can be utilized as biomarkers of oxidative stress. In this study, we report a new ultrasensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the analysis of εdA and edC in human urine, capable of detecting 0.5 fmol εdA and 0.3 fmol εdC in 1.0 mL of human urine, respectively. For validation of the method, 20 human urine samples were analyzed, and the results revealed that the mean levels of εdA and εdC (SD) fmol/µmol creatinine are 5.82 ± 2.11 (range 3.0–9.5) for εdA and 791.4 ± 328.8 (range 116.7–1264.9) for εdC in occupational benzene-exposed workers and 2.10 ± 1.32 (range 0.6–4.7) for εdA and 161.8 ± 200.9 (range 1.8–557.5) for εdC in non-benzene-exposed workers, respectively. The ultrasensitive detection method is thus suitable for applications in human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Viewing vs. Not Viewing a Real Forest on Physiological and Psychological Responses in the Same Setting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10883-10901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010883
Received: 24 July 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the impact of viewing versus not viewing a real forest on human subjects’ physiological and psychological responses in the same setting. Fifteen healthy volunteers (11 males, four females, mean age 36 years) participated. Each participant was asked to view a forest
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We investigated the impact of viewing versus not viewing a real forest on human subjects’ physiological and psychological responses in the same setting. Fifteen healthy volunteers (11 males, four females, mean age 36 years) participated. Each participant was asked to view a forest while seated in a comfortable chair for 15 min (Forest condition) vs. sitting the same length of time with a curtain obscuring the forest view (Enclosed condition). Both conditions significantly decreased blood pressure (BP) variables, i.e., systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure between pre and post experimental stimuli, but these reductions showed no difference between conditions. Interestingly, the Forest viewing reduced cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and improved the subjects’ Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores, whereas the Enclosed condition increased the HbO2 and did not affect the POMS scores. There were no significant differences in saliva amylase or heart rate variability (HRV) between the two conditions. Collectively, these results suggest that viewing a real forest may have a positive effect on cerebral activity and psychological responses. However, both viewing and not viewing the forest had similar effects on cardiovascular responses such as BP variables and HRV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Nature)
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Open AccessArticle Functional Validity of a Judgment Skills Measure within the Concept of Health Literacy for Sleeping Disorder Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10868-10882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010868
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The concept of health literacy has been widened to include higher order aspects such as patient decision-making skills while its measurement continued to rely narrowly on reading and numeracy skills, known as functional health literacy. We developed a Judgment Skills measure, designed to
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The concept of health literacy has been widened to include higher order aspects such as patient decision-making skills while its measurement continued to rely narrowly on reading and numeracy skills, known as functional health literacy. We developed a Judgment Skills measure, designed to assess patients’ ability to make appropriate decisions with regard to their condition. The measure offers scenarios with answer options ranked for biomedical adequacy. This study aims to examine the psychometric properties and the functional validity of the Judgment Skills measure. A self-administered survey among 87 primary insomnia patients in the Italian-speaking part of Switzerland was conducted. The extensive path model included variables such as functional health literacy, coping with the medical condition, experience of the scenario, sleep quality, duration suffering, education, and age. Correlation analyses were conducted to link the variables. The Judgment Skills measure showed the expected significant correlations. In general, higher Judgment Skills were related to coping strategies leading to better health outcomes. Functional health literacy correlated highly with education, while Judgment Skills did not, which confirmed the conceptual difference of these skills. The findings propose a model for conducting research that does embrace the broader conceptualization of health literacy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Are Delta-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Inhibition and Metal Concentrations Additional Factors for the Age-Related Cognitive Decline?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10851-10867; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010851
Received: 16 June 2014 / Revised: 16 September 2014 / Accepted: 25 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aging is often accompanied by cognitive impairments and influenced by oxidative status and chemical imbalances. Thus, this study was conducted to examine whether age-related cognitive deficit is associated with oxidative damage, especially with inhibition of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), as well as
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Aging is often accompanied by cognitive impairments and influenced by oxidative status and chemical imbalances. Thus, this study was conducted to examine whether age-related cognitive deficit is associated with oxidative damage, especially with inhibition of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), as well as to verify the influence of some metals in the enzyme activity and cognitive performance. Blood ALA-D activity, essential (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) and non-essential metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, V) were measured in 50 elderly and 20 healthy young subjects. Cognitive function was assessed by tests from Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) battery and other. The elderly group presented decreased ALA-D activity compared to the young group. The index of ALA-D reactivation was similar to both study groups, but negatively associated with metals. The mean levels of essential metals were within the reference values, while the most toxic metals were above them in both groups. Cognitive function impairments were observed in elderly group and were associated with decreased ALA-D activity, with lower levels of Se and higher levels of toxic metals (Hg and V). Results suggest that the reduced ALA-D activity in elderly can be an additional factor involved in cognitive decline, since its inhibition throughout life could lead to accumulation of the neurotoxic compound ALA. Toxic metals were found to contribute to cognitive decline and also to influence ALA-D reactivation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sociobehavioral Factors Associated with Caries Increment: A Longitudinal Study from 24 to 36 Months Old Children in Thailand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10838-10850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010838
Received: 12 August 2014 / Revised: 11 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate sociobehavioral risk factors from the prenatal period until 36 months of age, and the caries increment from 24 to 36 months of the child in Thailand. The data utilized in this study come from the
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The aim of this study is to investigate sociobehavioral risk factors from the prenatal period until 36 months of age, and the caries increment from 24 to 36 months of the child in Thailand. The data utilized in this study come from the prospective cohort study of Thai children (PCTC) from prenatal to 36 months of the child in Mueang Nan district, Northern Thailand. The total sample size recruited was 783 infants. The sample size with dental caries data was 603 and 597, at 24 months and at 36 months, respectively. The sample size of having two assessment points with a dental examination (at 24 months and at 36 months) was 597. Results indicate that the caries increment was 52.9%, meaning from 365 caries free children at 24 months 193 had developed dental caries at 36 months. The prevalence of dental caries was 34.2% at 24 months (n = 206) and 68.5% at 36 months of age (n = 409). In bivariate analysis, higher education of the mother, lower household income, bottle feeding of the infant, frequent sweet candy consumptions, and using rain or well water as drinking water were associated with dental caries increment, while in multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis lower household income, higher education of the mother, and using rain or well water as drinking water remained associated with dental caries increment. In conclusion, a very significant increase in caries development was observed, and oral health may be influenced by sociobehavioural risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Environmental Determinants of Oral Health)
Open AccessArticle Bioluminescence ATP Monitoring for the Routine Assessment of Food Contact Surface Cleanliness in a University Canteen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10824-10837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010824
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ATP bioluminescence monitoring and traditional microbiological analyses (viable counting of total mesophilic aerobes, coliforms and Escherichia coli) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP) at a university canteen which uses a HACCP-based approach. To that end, 10
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ATP bioluminescence monitoring and traditional microbiological analyses (viable counting of total mesophilic aerobes, coliforms and Escherichia coli) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP) at a university canteen which uses a HACCP-based approach. To that end, 10 cleaning control points (CPs), including food contact surfaces at risk of contamination from product residues or microbial growth, were analysed during an 8-month monitoring period. Arbitrary acceptability limits were set for both microbial loads and ATP bioluminescence readings. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.99) between the means of ATP bioluminescence readings and the viable counts of total mesophilic aerobes was seen, thus revealing a strong association of these parameters with the level of surface contamination. Among CPs, the raw meat and multi-purpose chopping boards showed the highest criticalities. Although ATP bioluminescence technology cannot substitute traditional microbiological analyses for the determination of microbial load on food contact surfaces, it has proved to be a powerful tool for the real time monitoring of surface cleanliness at mass catering plants, for verify the correct application of SSOP, and hence for their implementation/revision in the case of poor hygiene. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10806-10823; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010806
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 9 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil.
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Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Decreased Survival of Glioma Patients with Astrocytoma Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme) Associated with Long-Term Use of Mobile and Cordless Phones
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10790-10805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010790
Received: 11 September 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On 31 May 2011 the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorised radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields, as a Group 2B, i.e., a “possible”, human carcinogen. A causal
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On 31 May 2011 the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorised radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields, as a Group 2B, i.e., a “possible”, human carcinogen. A causal association would be strengthened if it could be shown that the use of wireless phones has an impact on the survival of glioma patients. We analysed survival of 1678 glioma patients in our 1997–2003 and 2007–2009 case-control studies. Use of wireless phones in the >20 years latency group (time since first use) yielded an increased hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–2.3 for glioma. For astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme; n = 926) mobile phone use yielded HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4–2.9 and cordless phone use HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.04–11 in the same latency category. The hazard ratio for astrocytoma grade IV increased statistically significant per year of latency for wireless phones, HR = 1.020, 95% CI = 1.007–1.033, but not per 100 h cumulative use, HR = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.999–1.005. HR was not statistically significant increased for other types of glioma. Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines. Full article
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