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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11898-11914; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111898

Mouth-Level Intake of Benzo[a]pyrene from Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes

1
Tobacco Analysis Laboratory, Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mailstop F-19, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
2
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
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Abstract

Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes is associated with changes in exposure to nicotine and BaP, levels of BaP in spent cigarette filter butts were correlated with levels of BaP in cigarette smoke to estimate mouth-level intake (MLI) of BaP for 72 daily smokers given three progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Urinary cotinine, a marker of nicotine exposure, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), a marker of PAH exposure, were measured throughout the study. Median daily BaP MLI and urine cotinine decreased in a similar manner as smokers switched to progressively lower nicotine cigarettes, despite relatively constant daily cigarette consumption. 1-HOP levels were less responsive to the use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. We demonstrate that spent cigarette filter butt analysis is a promising tool to estimate MLI of harmful chemicals on a per cigarette or per-day basis, which partially addresses the concerns of the temporal influence of smoking behavior or differences in cigarette design on exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: cigarette smoke; benzo[a]pyrene; mouth-level intake; cigarette filter; filter analysis; reduced nicotine cigarette; cotinine; smoking topography cigarette smoke; benzo[a]pyrene; mouth-level intake; cigarette filter; filter analysis; reduced nicotine cigarette; cotinine; smoking topography
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ding, Y.S.; Ward, J.; Hammond, D.; Watson, C.H. Mouth-Level Intake of Benzo[a]pyrene from Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 11898-11914.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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