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Special Issue "Preventive Medicine"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. María M. Morales Suárez-Varela

1 CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain
2 Center for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia, Spain
3 Unit of Public Health and Environmental Care, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Avda. Vicente Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
E-Mail
Interests: health and environmental risk assessment; clinical epidemiology; public health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The fields of preventive medicine and public health, at least for the foreseeable future, share the objectives of promoting general health, preventing specific diseases, and applying the concepts and techniques of epidemiology toward these goals. The purview of preventive medicine seeks to enhance lives of individuals by helping them improve their own health and to make public health attempts to promote health in populations through this application. As a discipline, it has traditionally been described to encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention levels. Some of these health endpoints include health-promoting changes with respect to the environment, workplaces, and lifestyles. However, health-related behaviors are not fully effective; specific protection methods against a disease may be warranted. The rationale for a holistic perspective in medical practice is compelling, particularly in the realm of health promotion and disease prevention. Preventive medicine should make the widest array of appropriate options available to patients and should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that working interventions are systematically distinguished from those that do not work. The case is made for the responsible use of science and for responsiveness to patients’ requirements, which persist when the data from randomized controlled trials have been exhausted and reconciled. Integrative medicine is a framework for this area.

This special IJERPH issue aims to advance and explore the overlap and potential synergies of integrative medicine and preventive medicine in the context of these levels of prevention by acknowledging the relative deficiency of research on the effectiveness of practice-based integrative care. This Special Issue represents an effort to capture current developments in this field and to provide a forum for cutting-edge contributions to the literature.

Prof. Dr. María M. Morales Suárez-Varela
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • medicine preventive
  • public health
  • promoting health
  • disease prevention

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Correlation of Zinc with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 3060-3076; doi:10.3390/ijerph120303060
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 27 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypertension and smoking are related with oxidative stress (OS), which in turn reports on cellular aging. Zinc is an essential element involved in an individual’s physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of zinc levels in serum and urine
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Hypertension and smoking are related with oxidative stress (OS), which in turn reports on cellular aging. Zinc is an essential element involved in an individual’s physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of zinc levels in serum and urine with OS and cellular aging and its effect on the development of hypertension. In a Spanish sample with 1500 individuals, subjects aged 20–59 years were selected, whose zinc intake levels fell within the recommended limits. These individuals were classified according to their smoking habits and hypertensive condition. A positive correlation was found (Pearson’s C = 0.639; p = 0.01) between Zn serum/urine quotient and oxidized glutathione levels (GSSG). Finally, risk of hypertension significantly increased when the GSSG levels exceeded the 75 percentile; OR = 2.80 (95%CI = 1.09–7.18) and AOR = 3.06 (95%CI = 0.96–9.71). Low zinc levels in serum were related with OS and cellular aging and were, in turn, to be a risk factor for hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Open AccessArticle Hypertension and the Fat-Soluble Vitamins A, D and E
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 2793-2809; doi:10.3390/ijerph120302793
Received: 17 September 2014 / Revised: 24 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 4 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypertension affects populations globally and is thus a public health and socio-economic problem. Macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies are common in the general population, and may be even more prevalent in hypertensive patients. This study aimed to determine a possible association between hypertension and
[...] Read more.
Hypertension affects populations globally and is thus a public health and socio-economic problem. Macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies are common in the general population, and may be even more prevalent in hypertensive patients. This study aimed to determine a possible association between hypertension and intake of fat-soluble vitamins A, D and E. Participants were from the cross-sectional Hortega nutrition study conducted with a random sample of 1514 people (50.3% women, 49.7% men) and two groups: nonhypertensive controls ≥40 years old (n = 429; 28.3%); unknown untreated hypertension cases ≥40 years old (n = 246; 16.2%). Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were taken. Data on dietary intakes, education, socio-economic status, place of residence, health habits, comorbidities, alcohol consumption and smoking were collected and assessed. A descriptive data study was done and compared by ANOVA and Chi-Square. No p value higher than 0.05 was considered significant. The results showed that vitamin A intake was higher in the hypertensive subpopulation (1732.77 ± 962.27 µg vs. 1655.89 ± 902.81 µg), and vitamin D and E intakes were lower (8.13 ± 9.71 µg vs. 8.25 ± 9.52 µg and 18.79 ± 7.84 mg vs. 18.60 ± 8.20 mg, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found in any adjusted model. This study did not significantly associate intake of vitamins A, D and E with hypertension in people aged over 40. Future studies on this topic and a larger sample are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Open AccessArticle Risk Communication Concerning Welding Fumes for the Primary Preventive Care of Welding Apprentices in Southern Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(1), 986-1002; doi:10.3390/ijerph120100986
Received: 19 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study’s aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with
[...] Read more.
This study’s aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ≤ 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Open AccessArticle Managing an Online Survey about Influenza Vaccination in Primary Healthcare Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(1), 541-553; doi:10.3390/ijerph120100541
Received: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 31 December 2014 / Published: 9 January 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Online surveys are increasingly used due to their speed and efficiency. The aim of this study was to analyze factors that may have contributed to the quality and speed of response of an online survey on influenza vaccination in primary healthcare workers. A
[...] Read more.
Online surveys are increasingly used due to their speed and efficiency. The aim of this study was to analyze factors that may have contributed to the quality and speed of response of an online survey on influenza vaccination in primary healthcare workers. A multicenter study including family physicians, nurses and pediatricians from primary healthcare teams from seven Spanish Autonomous Communities was designed. The centers were selected by simple random sampling. The survey remained active and accessible for 56 days and four reminders were sent. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to assess the association of sociodemographic variables and responding to the survey before the second reminder. Complete, validated information was obtained from 1965 primary healthcare workers. The total response rate was 36.2%. More nurses (46.3%) responded before the second reminder and more family physicians (52.8%) after the second reminder. The adjusted OR shows that family physicians responded later (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.2–1.8) than nurses. The responses obtained in the first 24 h after the initial sending and the reminders accounted for 41.7% of the completed surveys, indicating the importance of reminders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Vitamin D and Psoriasis Pathology in the Mediterranean Region, Valencia (Spain)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(12), 12108-12117; doi:10.3390/ijerph111212108
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 18 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
PDF Full-text (674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D has important immunomodulatory effects on psoriasis in the Mediterranean region. To measure vitamin D intake in subjects with and without psoriasis, and to find an association with relevant clinical features, a case-control study was performed using cases (n = 50, 50%
[...] Read more.
Vitamin D has important immunomodulatory effects on psoriasis in the Mediterranean region. To measure vitamin D intake in subjects with and without psoriasis, and to find an association with relevant clinical features, a case-control study was performed using cases (n = 50, 50% participation rate) clinically diagnosed with psoriasis and 200 healthy subjects (39.5% participation rate), leaving a final sample of 104 people. A survey was conducted using a food frequency questionnaire and clinical histories. Cases and controls were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. We observed insufficient intake of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) or ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) for both cases and controls. Patients with psoriasis were at greater risk of associated pathologies: dyslipidaemia (OR: 3.6, 95% CI: 0.8–15.2); metabolic syndrome (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 0.2–53.9); hypertension (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.4–7.2). Insufficient vitamin D intake in both psoriasis patients and controls in the Mediterranean population, and cardiovascular comorbility is more frequent in patients with psoriasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Open AccessArticle Influenza Vaccination Coverage among Adults in Korea: 2008–2009 to 2011–2012 Seasons
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(12), 12162-12173; doi:10.3390/ijerph111212162
Received: 13 September 2014 / Revised: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 20 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (673 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination coverage in adults from the 2008–2009 season to the 2011–2012 season, including pandemic and post-pandemic seasons in Korea. We collected data of self-reported vaccine use from the Korean Community Health
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination coverage in adults from the 2008–2009 season to the 2011–2012 season, including pandemic and post-pandemic seasons in Korea. We collected data of self-reported vaccine use from the Korean Community Health Survey. We also collected information on socioeconomic status and health behaviors in subpopulations. We tested for linear trends among the data to investigate vaccine coverage before and after the pandemic; and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of obtaining the influenza vaccination. The results revealed a steady increase in vaccination coverage in every subgroup during four consecutive seasons. The highest rate of vaccine coverage (43.6%) occurred two years after the pandemic. Factors associated with vaccine receipt were: older age; lower education level; lower income; and health behaviors such as regular walking and receiving a health check-up. Smoking and drinking alcohol were inversely associated with vaccination. Having a chronic health condition was also a strong predictor of vaccine receipt. Though vaccination coverage rates were high in high-risk groups; disparities in coverage rates were substantial; particularly in young adults. Interventions are needed to minimize the coverage gaps among subgroups and to improve overall vaccination rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Open AccessArticle Tuberculosis among Healthcare Workers in Southeastern China: A Retrospective Study of 7-Year Surveillance Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 12042-12052; doi:10.3390/ijerph111112042
Received: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1039 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The baseline prevalence and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) among general healthcare workers (HCWs) in southeastern China remains unknown. We conducted a retrospective study based on the TB surveillance data in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2011, which were extracted from the national Tuberculosis
[...] Read more.
The baseline prevalence and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) among general healthcare workers (HCWs) in southeastern China remains unknown. We conducted a retrospective study based on the TB surveillance data in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2011, which were extracted from the national Tuberculosis Information Management System (TIMS). We calculated and compared annual notification rates of different occupational groups and analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The annual TB notification rates among general HCWs declined steadily from 2005 to 2011. On average, HCWs showed annual TB notification rates lower than the general population but higher than teachers. Recorded HCW TB patients averaged 35.5 years of age, with females outnumbering males (58.0% > 42.0%). The proportion of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) was higher among male than in the female patients (88.5% > 83.4%, P = 0.031). Our study suggested that general HCWs run a higher occupational risk than teachers although the two groups are socioeconomically comparable and that the priority should be given to the young female HCWs for TB prevention in healthcare institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Open AccessArticle Surveillance of Hospital Contacts among Danish Seafarers and Fishermen with Focus on Skin and Infectious Diseases—A Population-Based Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11931-11949; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111931
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objectives: A systematic overview of time trends in hospital contacts among Danish seafarers and fishermen by job title and analyses on skin and infectious diseases. Methods: Occupational cohorts with hospital contacts 1994–1998 and 1999–2003. Standardized hospital contact ratios (SHCR) were estimated using
[...] Read more.
Objectives: A systematic overview of time trends in hospital contacts among Danish seafarers and fishermen by job title and analyses on skin and infectious diseases. Methods: Occupational cohorts with hospital contacts 1994–1998 and 1999–2003. Standardized hospital contact ratios (SHCR) were estimated using national rates and ranked by SHCR size. Results: For non-officers in 1994–1998, infectious diseases had the highest SHCR, followed by neoplastic and endocrinal diseases; in 1999–2003 skin diseases were followed by endocrinal and gastrointestinal diseases. For fishermen in 1994–1998, nervous system, gastrointestinal, and skin diseases had the highest SHCRs; in 1999–2003 it was nervous system, skin, and lymphohematopoietic diseases. As for skin diseases, male fishermen and non-officer seamen generally had increased SHCRs, but engine room personnel specifically had a low SHCR for eczema (eight cases). Fishermen had high SHCRs for tuberculosis in both time periods (six and nine cases, respectively). Non-officer seamen on cargo ships had increased SHCRs for HIV in both time periods and for hepatitis in 1994–1999. Extending the follow-up until 2000 or 2005 showed similar results. Conclusions: Surveillance of seamen’s health gives useful information. The elevated SHCR for HIV infection among non-officers has not declined despite preventive information campaigns. Tuberculosis among fishermen may be due to infection on shore. Skin diseases had very high SHCRs, not due to cutaneous oil exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Community-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Blood Pressure and Glucose among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in China: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11645-11663; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111645
Received: 10 July 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although evidence suggests that lifestyle interventions can reduce blood pressure (BP) and glucose levels, there is little information about the feasibility of such interventions when implemented in community settings. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle intervention on BP and glucose
[...] Read more.
Although evidence suggests that lifestyle interventions can reduce blood pressure (BP) and glucose levels, there is little information about the feasibility of such interventions when implemented in community settings. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle intervention on BP and glucose in the middle-aged and older Chinese population. By using a cluster randomisation approach, 474 participants from two communities were assigned to the intervention group which received intensive health education and behavioural intervention, or the control group which received conventional education. Linear mixed models were used to compare between-group differences on change in BP and fasting glucose after 6, 12 and 24 months. At the 12-month follow-up, the intervention group experienced significantly reductions in systolic BP (−4.9 vs. 2.4 mmHg; mean difference [MD] −7.3 mmHg; p < 0.001), diastolic BP (−1.9 vs. 1.9 mmHg; MD −3.8 mmHg; p < 0.001) and fasting glucose (−0.59 vs. 0.08 mmol/L; MD −0.67 mmol/L; p < 0.001). These differences were sustained at the 24-month follow-up. With only two communities, it was not possible to adjust for potential clustering by site. This approach of lifestyle interventions conducted through primary care services may be a potential solution for combating hypertension and diabetes in a resource-limited country context in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)

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