Next Article in Journal
Awareness, Trial, and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in 10 Countries: Findings from the ITC Project
Next Article in Special Issue
Physical, Chemical, and Immunohistochemical Investigation of the Damage to Salivary Glands in a Model of Intoxication with Aluminium Citrate
Previous Article in Journal
Alcoholism Risk Reduction in France: A Modernised Approach Related to Alcohol Misuse Disorders
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Mobility, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Pb and Cd in Contaminated Soil Using TCLP, BCR and Earthworms
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11676-11690; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111676

Liver δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Inhibited by Neonicotinoids and Restored by Antioxidant Agents

1
Laboratory of Toxicology (LATOX), Department of Clinical and Toxicology Analysis, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90610000, Brazil
2
Institute of Cardiology, University Foundation of Cardiology, Porto Alegre, RS 90040371, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Toxicology, Center of Biological and Health Sciences University of Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS, 96815900, Brazil
4
Post-Graduate Program Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90610000, Brazil
5
Department of Clinical and Toxicology Analysis, Federal University of Santa Maria, RS 97105900, Brazil
6
Department of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22453900, Brazil
7
Department of Production and Drug Control, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90610000, Brazil
8
Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90035003, Brazil
9
Department of Production of Source-Material, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90610000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [946 KB, uploaded 13 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

Neonicotinoids represent the most used class of insecticides worldwide, and their precursor, imidacloprid, is the most widely marketed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of imidacloprid on the activity of hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), protective effect of potential antioxidants against this potential effect and presence of chemical elements in the constitution of this pesticide. We observed that δ-ALA-D activity was significantly inhibited by imidacloprid at all concentrations tested in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value was obtained and used to evaluate the restoration of the enzymatic activity. δ-ALA-D inhibition was completely restored by addition of dithiotreitol (DTT) and partly by ZnCl2, demonstrating that the inhibition occurs by oxidation of thiol groups and by displacement of the Zn (II), which can be explained by the presence of chemical elements found in the constitution of pesticides. Reduced glutathione (GSH) had the best antioxidant effect against to δ-ALA-D inhibition caused by imidacloprid, followed by curcumin and resveratrol. It is well known that inhibition of the enzyme δ-ALA-D may result in accumulation of its neurotoxic substrate (δ-ALA), in this line, our results suggest that further studies are needed to investigate the possible neurotoxicity induced by neonicotinoids and the involvement of antioxidants in cases of poisoning by neonicotinoids. View Full-Text
Keywords: neonicotinoids; δ-ALA-D activity; toxicity; antioxidants neonicotinoids; δ-ALA-D activity; toxicity; antioxidants
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sauer, E.; Moro, A.M.; Brucker, N.; Nascimento, S.; Gauer, B.; Fracasso, R.; Gioda, A.; Beck, R.; Moreira, J.C.F.; Eifler-Lima, V.L.; Garcia, S.C. Liver δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Inhibited by Neonicotinoids and Restored by Antioxidant Agents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 11676-11690.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top