Liver δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Inhibited by Neonicotinoids and Restored by Antioxidant Agents
AbstractNeonicotinoids represent the most used class of insecticides worldwide, and their precursor, imidacloprid, is the most widely marketed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of imidacloprid on the activity of hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), protective effect of potential antioxidants against this potential effect and presence of chemical elements in the constitution of this pesticide. We observed that δ-ALA-D activity was significantly inhibited by imidacloprid at all concentrations tested in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value was obtained and used to evaluate the restoration of the enzymatic activity. δ-ALA-D inhibition was completely restored by addition of dithiotreitol (DTT) and partly by ZnCl2, demonstrating that the inhibition occurs by oxidation of thiol groups and by displacement of the Zn (II), which can be explained by the presence of chemical elements found in the constitution of pesticides. Reduced glutathione (GSH) had the best antioxidant effect against to δ-ALA-D inhibition caused by imidacloprid, followed by curcumin and resveratrol. It is well known that inhibition of the enzyme δ-ALA-D may result in accumulation of its neurotoxic substrate (δ-ALA), in this line, our results suggest that further studies are needed to investigate the possible neurotoxicity induced by neonicotinoids and the involvement of antioxidants in cases of poisoning by neonicotinoids. View Full-Text
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Sauer, E.; Moro, A.M.; Brucker, N.; Nascimento, S.; Gauer, B.; Fracasso, R.; Gioda, A.; Beck, R.; Moreira, J.C.F.; Eifler-Lima, V.L.; Garcia, S.C. Liver δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Inhibited by Neonicotinoids and Restored by Antioxidant Agents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 11676-11690.
Sauer E, Moro AM, Brucker N, Nascimento S, Gauer B, Fracasso R, Gioda A, Beck R, Moreira JCF, Eifler-Lima VL, Garcia SC. Liver δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Inhibited by Neonicotinoids and Restored by Antioxidant Agents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(11):11676-11690.Chicago/Turabian Style
Sauer, Elisa; Moro, Angela M.; Brucker, Natália; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Fracasso, Rafael; Gioda, Adriana; Beck, Ruy; Moreira, José C.F.; Eifler-Lima, Vera L.; Garcia, Solange C. 2014. "Liver δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Inhibited by Neonicotinoids and Restored by Antioxidant Agents." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 11: 11676-11690.