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Special Issue "Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Jorge Delva (Website)

School of Social Work, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Interests: outcomes research; prevention and treatment of chemical dependency; drug epidemiology; program evaluation; survey, cross-cultural, and cross-national research; multi-level statistics
Guest Editor
Dr. Shijian Li

Department of Public Health SUNY College at Old Westbur P.O. Box 210, Old Westbury, NY 11568, USA
Phone: +1 516 876 4221
Interests: substances abuses and mental health; health disparities; social determinants of health; acculturation and health; community-based participation research (CBPR); research methods; social network analysis; program evaluation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The misuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs is a critical public health problem worldwide, associated with significant health and social problems for individuals, families, communities, and countries. Whereas in some countries the production, trafficking, and consumption of some drugs have changed little over time, including these countries' drug policies, in other countries there have been significant shifts in these patterns and policies. For example, some countries have seen a considerable decline in tobacco use while others have not observed noticeable changes in decades. The production, trafficking, and use of cannabis, opium, and amphetamines-type stimulants appear to be increasing in some countries while remaining steady in others. In terms of drug policies, there have been a number of recent changes in many places around the world. For example, in Uruguay and in some states and cities in the United States, newly passed laws allow for the production, transportation, selling, storing, and consumption of marijuana, albeit with considerable differences across cities, states and countries. Another example is what is referred to as the "Zero Tolerance" Law passed in Chile in 2012, penalizing drivers whose breathalyzer test show a blood-alcohol level of 0.30 or higher. The intention of this law is to decrease the number of alcohol-related traffic accidents and fatalities.

This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of recent worldwide trends in the following two areas: (1) The epidemiology of substance use / drug abuse worldwide with a special focus on specific and nascent drug trends by population groups (e.g., males vs. females, members of racial and ethnic minority groups, socioeconomic status); and (2) Advances in prevention and treatment innovations to reduce and eliminate the consequences of substance use. Substances considered can include licit (e.g., tobacco, alcohol) and illicit drugs, as well as those that are used for non-medical purposes. Studies that address the above topics within the context of a specific country's drug policies concerning production, transportation, storing, selling, and consumption, as well as those that use novel methodological approaches using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods to studying substance use are particularly welcomed. This Special Issue provides a unique opportunity for a worldwide discussion of between- and within-country comparisons of drug use trends and interventions, contextualized within the perspective of the country's specific drug policies for the particular substance discussed.

Dr. Jorge Delva
Dr. Shijian Li
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • substance use
  • drug abuse
  • epidemiology
  • public health
  • prevention and treatment

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5233-5240; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505233
Received: 21 November 2014 / Revised: 1 May 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) from two studies [...] Read more.
Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)
Open AccessArticle School Bonds and the Onset of Substance Use among Korean Youth: An Examination of Social Control Theory
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 2923-2940; doi:10.3390/ijerph120302923
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the association between school bonds and the onset of substance use among adolescents in South Korea. Based on Hirschi’s social control theory, this study tested the roles of teacher attachment, educational aspiration, extracurricular activities, and rule internalization—four elements of [...] Read more.
This study examined the association between school bonds and the onset of substance use among adolescents in South Korea. Based on Hirschi’s social control theory, this study tested the roles of teacher attachment, educational aspiration, extracurricular activities, and rule internalization—four elements of social bonds within the school setting—in delayed initiation of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Discrete-time logistic regression was used to analyze five waves of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (N = 3449 at baseline), a nationally representative sample of Korean youth. Stronger teacher attachment, higher educational aspiration, and higher rule internalization were correlated with delayed onset of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. On the other hand, participation in school extracurricular activities was positively associated with the onset of alcohol drinking, but not statistically significantly linked with the onset of cigarette smoking. These findings suggest that early prevention strategies for youth substance use should specifically target school-related factors that represent social bonds developed among youth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)
Open AccessArticle Substance Use, Mental Disorders and Physical Health of Caribbeans at-Home Compared to Those Residing in the United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(1), 710-734; doi:10.3390/ijerph120100710
Received: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 13 January 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study compares the health conditions of domestic Caribbeans with those living in the United States to explore how national context and migration experiences might influence substance use (i.e., alcohol or drug) and other mental and physical health conditions. The [...] Read more.
This study compares the health conditions of domestic Caribbeans with those living in the United States to explore how national context and migration experiences might influence substance use (i.e., alcohol or drug) and other mental and physical health conditions. The study is based upon probability samples of non-institutionalized Caribbeans living in the United States (1621), Jamaica (1216) and Guyana (2068) 18 years of age and over. Employing descriptive statistics and multivariate analytic procedures, the results revealed that substance use and other physical health conditions and major depressive disorder and mania vary by national context, with higher rates among Caribbeans living in the United States. Context and generation status influenced health outcomes. Among first generation black Caribbeans, residing in the United States for a longer length of time is linked to poorer health outcomes. There were different socio-demographic correlates of health among at-home and abroad Caribbeans. The results of this study support the need for additional research to explain how national context, migratory experiences and generation status contribute to understanding substance use and mental disorders and physical health outcomes among Caribbean first generation and descendants within the United States, compared to those remaining in the Caribbean region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)
Open AccessArticle Estimating the Heterogeneous Relationship between Peer Drinking and Youth Alcohol Consumption in Chile Using Propensity Score Stratification
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11879-11897; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111879
Received: 18 July 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When estimating the association between peer and youth alcohol consumption, it is critical to account for possible differential levels of response to peer socialization processes across youth, in addition to variability in individual, family, and social factors. Failure to account for intrinsic [...] Read more.
When estimating the association between peer and youth alcohol consumption, it is critical to account for possible differential levels of response to peer socialization processes across youth, in addition to variability in individual, family, and social factors. Failure to account for intrinsic differences in youth’s response to peers may pose a threat of selection bias. To address this issue, we used a propensity score stratification method to examine whether the size of the association between peer and youth drinking is contingent upon differential predicted probabilities of associating with alcohol-consuming friends. Analyzing a Chilean youth sample (N = 914) of substance use, we found that youths are susceptible to the detrimental role of peer drinkers, but the harmful relationship with one’s own drinking behavior may be exacerbated among youth who already have a high probability of socializing with peers who drink. In other words, computing a single weighted-average estimate for peer drinking would have underestimated the detrimental role of peers, particularly among at-risk youths, and overestimated the role of drinking peers among youths who are less susceptible to peer socialization processes. Heterogeneous patterns in the association between peer and youth drinking may shed light on social policies that target at-risk youths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)
Open AccessArticle Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10461-10479; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010461
Received: 4 July 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 2 October 2014 / Published: 14 October 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol [...] Read more.
This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7%) and emotional abuse (71.8%) among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively). Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)
Open AccessArticle Work Hard, Party Harder: Drug Use and Sexual Behaviour in Young British Casual Workers in Ibiza, Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10051-10061; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010051
Received: 12 August 2014 / Revised: 19 September 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Every summer, young people flock to nightlife-focused holiday resorts around the world to find casual work. Despite being exposed to hedonistic environments, often for several months, little is known about their substance use, sexual activity and health service needs over [...] Read more.
Background: Every summer, young people flock to nightlife-focused holiday resorts around the world to find casual work. Despite being exposed to hedonistic environments, often for several months, little is known about their substance use, sexual activity and health service needs over this extended amount of time abroad. Methods: A short anonymous questionnaire examining alcohol and drug use, sexual behaviour and use of health services was administered to young British casual workers aged 16–35 in San Antonio, Ibiza (n = 171). Results: 97.7% of casual workers used alcohol in Ibiza, and the majority (85.3%) used drugs. Almost half (43.5%) of all participants used a drug in Ibiza that they had never used in the UK. Most casual workers arrived in Ibiza without a partner or spouse (86.5%). Of these, 86.9% had sex during their stay and 50.0% had unprotected sex; often while under the influence of alcohol. Only 14.3% of those having unprotected sex with a new partner sought a sexual health check-up in Ibiza, although 84.1% intended to do this on their return to the UK. Conclusion: Substance use and sexual risk taking is widespread among young British casual workers in Ibiza. Such international nightlife resorts represent key settings for substance-related health and social problems, and for the international spread of sexually transmitted infections. Addressing the health needs of casual workers and the environments that permit and promote their excessive behaviour requires collaboration between authorities in home and destination countries and the tourism industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)
Open AccessCommunication Pediatric Exposure to Drugs of Abuse by Hair Testing: Monitoring 15 Years of Evolution in Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 8267-8275; doi:10.3390/ijerph110808267
Received: 9 July 2014 / Revised: 6 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 14 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes [...] Read more.
Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes in this exposure. Children were recruited from three independent studies performed at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) and approved by the local Ethics Committee. Hair samples were collected from the first 187 children cohort (around 4 years of age) in 1998, from the second 90 children cohort (1.5–5 years of age) in 2008 and from the third 114 children cohort (5–14 years of age) in 2013. Hair samples were analysed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis by validated methodologies using gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Familiar sociodemographics and eventual consumption of drugs of abuse by parents, and caregivers were recorded. Hair samples from 24.6% children in 1998 were positive for any drug of abuse (23.0% cocaine), 25.5% in 2008 (23.3% cocaine), and 28.1% in 2013 (20.1% cocaine and 11.4% cannabis). In none of the cohorts, parental sociodemographics were associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. The results of the three study cohorts demonstrated a significant prevalence of unsuspected pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse which mainly involved cocaine maintained along fifteen years in Barcelona, Spain. We recommend to be aware about unsuspected passive exposure to drugs of abuse in general population and to use general or selected hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)
Open AccessArticle Facilitators and Barriers to Effective Smoking Cessation: Counselling Services for Inpatients from Nurse-Counsellors’ Perspectives — A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 4782-4798; doi:10.3390/ijerph110504782
Received: 22 January 2014 / Revised: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 29 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tobacco use has reached epidemic levels around the World, resulting in a world-wide increase in tobacco-related deaths and disabilities. Hospitalization presents an opportunity for nurses to encourage inpatients to quit smoking. This qualitative descriptive study was aimed to explore nurse-counsellors’ perspectives of [...] Read more.
Tobacco use has reached epidemic levels around the World, resulting in a world-wide increase in tobacco-related deaths and disabilities. Hospitalization presents an opportunity for nurses to encourage inpatients to quit smoking. This qualitative descriptive study was aimed to explore nurse-counsellors’ perspectives of facilitators and barriers in the implementation of effective smoking cessation counselling services for inpatients. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 nurses who were qualified smoking cessation counsellors and who were recruited from eleven health promotion hospitals that were smoke-free and located in the Greater Taipei City Area.  Data were collected from May 2012 to October 2012, and then analysed using content analysis based on the grounded theory approach. From nurse-counsellors’ perspectives, an effective smoking cessation program should be patient-centred and provide a supportive environment. Another finding is that effective smoking cessation counselling involves encouraging patients to modify their lifestyles. Time constraints and inadequate resources are barriers that inhibit the effectiveness of smoking cessation counselling programs in acute-care hospitals. We suggest that hospitals should set up a smoking counselling follow-up program, including funds, facilities, and trained personnel to deliver counselling services by telephone, and build a network with community smoking cessation resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)

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