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Special Issue "Antibiotic Resistant and Pathogenic Bacteria in the Food Production Environment: Epidemiological Evolution and Control"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2014)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The food industries have developed in recent years due to the continuous integration of various disciplines for production, such as health, nutrition, breeding, husbandry, and biosecurity. However, food industries are facing constraints because the consequences of production on the environment, food safety, and animal health and welfare are now part of consumers’ opinions and demands. For example, emerging pathogens and antibiotic resistance in food have become a worldwide threat to public health. The use of antibiotics in the food production system and the attendant selection of resistant bacteria have been the subjects of numerous studies. However, beside the simple principle that exposure to an antimicrobial agent can select for a resistant bacterium, the development and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance is a complex phenomenon, which should be examined from both ecological and population perspectives. Many antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria have been identified on mobile genetic elements (e.g., plasmids, transposons, and integrons); these elements enable the resistance genes to disseminate among bacteria in food, animals or in environments. However, little is known about the development, evolution, distribution, and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in relation to the use of specific antimicrobial agents in the food industry.

The persistence of bacteria in food production systems is a critical food safety issue. In several countries, accurate estimates of the volume of antimicrobials used in food production systems are lacking. The origin and fate of the antimicrobial resistant and pathogenic bacteria found in food production systems needs to be established. Furthermore, the evolution of commensal antibiotic resistant bacteria into pathogenic ones deserves investigation. The determination of the exact sources and ecology of resistant and/or virulent bacteria during food production will help scientists develop strategies to stop their spread.

This Special Issue will synthesize what is known about the molecular mechanisms of evolution and survival of pathogenic and resistant bacteria associated with food. The issue will also integrate studies concerning the risk factors of such bacteria’s dissemination and distribution (in relation to human practices and environmental factors). The emphasis will be on the relationship between antibiotic and virulence determinants and their precise role in bacterial survival and maintenance, the impact of environmental factors, lessons learned across the world, and best practices and transformational adaptive management.

Dr. Moussa S. Diarra
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • farms (crops and animals)
  • foodborne and waterborne bacteria
  • environmental conditions
  • antibiotic resistance and toxicity
  • virulence and pathogenesis
  • origin and evolution
  • survival and adaptability
  • alternative managements

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Isolation, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) Strains from Oklahoma Retail Poultry Meats
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6148-6161; doi:10.3390/ijerph120606148
Received: 19 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is one the top five pathogens causing domestically acquired foodborne illness in the U.S. Only a few studies are available related to the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the U.S. retail poultry industry. The objectives of this study [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is one the top five pathogens causing domestically acquired foodborne illness in the U.S. Only a few studies are available related to the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the U.S. retail poultry industry. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) in retail chicken and turkey meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their antimicrobial resistance and possession of toxin genes. A total of 167 (114 chicken and 53 turkey) retail poultry samples were used in this study. The chicken samples included 61 organic samples while the rest of the poultry samples were conventional. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 57/106 (53.8%) in the conventional poultry samples and 25/61 (41%) in the organic ones. Prevalence in the turkey samples (64.2%) was higher than in the chicken ones (42.1%). Prevalence of S. aureus did not vary much between conventional (43.4%) and organic chicken samples (41%). Two chicken samples 2/114 (1.8%) were positive for MRSA. PFGE identified the two MRSA isolates as belonging to PFGE type USA300 (from conventional chicken) and USA 500 (from organic chicken) which are community acquired CA-MRSA suggesting a human based source of contamination. MLST and spa typing also supported this conclusion. A total of 168 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (101 chicken isolates and 67 turkey isolates) were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was higher in the turkey isolates compared to the chicken ones and the percentage of resistance to most of the antimicrobials tested was also higher among the turkey isolates. The hemolysin hla and hld genes, enterotoxins seg and sei, and leucocidins lukE-lukD were more prevalent in the chicken isolates. The PVL gene lukS-lukF was detected only in chicken isolates including the MRSA ones. In conclusion, S. aureus is highly prevalent in poultry retail meats sold in Oklahoma with a very low presence of human-originated MRSA. Multidrug resistance is not only prevalent in the MRSA isolates, but also in many MSSA poultry strains, particularly turkey. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli from Pigs during Metaphylactic Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole Treatment and in the Post-Exposure Period
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 2150-2163; doi:10.3390/ijerph120202150
Received: 15 November 2014 / Revised: 6 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevalence of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance in commensal E. coli from pigs was tested in this study. E. coli was derived from three groups of piglets in successive stages of metaphylactic therapy and from two groups of sows 10 and [...] Read more.
The prevalence of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance in commensal E. coli from pigs was tested in this study. E. coli was derived from three groups of piglets in successive stages of metaphylactic therapy and from two groups of sows 10 and 18 weeks after the treatment. MIC values of TMP and SMX were determined for a total of 352 strains. The presence of resistance genes (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA17, sul1, sul2, sul3) and class 1 and 2 integron-associated dfrA gene cassettes was tested. Resistance to TMP was very high during the administration of the antimicrobial (from 97 to 100%) and amounted to 86% and 69% in the post-exposure period; MIC > 32 mg/L. The isolates from all groups of pigs were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, with MIC > 1028 mg/L. The dfrA1 and sul1 genes (as part of integrons) dominated in E. coli from piglets, but the dfrA12 and sul1 genes were prevalent in E. coli from sows. Coexistence of the different dfrA genes was detected in 71 isolates from all groups of swine. Transcription analysis revealed that most of these genes were not transcribed, particularly gene cassettes of class 1 integrons. The research revealed a high level of resistance associated with the metaphylactic treatment, persistence and circulation of resistance in bacterial populations. Diverse genetic background with multiple and not transcribed resistance genes was observed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(1), 970-985; doi:10.3390/ijerph120100970
Received: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 22 December 2014 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (911 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. [...] Read more.
Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to the increased spreading rate of the VFs, while the barn habitat is characterised by the higher levels of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli. Full article
Open AccessArticle Multiresistant Bacteria Isolated from Chicken Meat in Austria
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(12), 12582-12593; doi:10.3390/ijerph111212582
Received: 15 October 2014 / Revised: 27 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 November 2014 / Published: 4 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR bacteria), such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), pose a challenge to the human health care system. In recent years, these MDR bacteria have been detected increasingly outside [...] Read more.
Multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR bacteria), such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), pose a challenge to the human health care system. In recent years, these MDR bacteria have been detected increasingly outside the hospital environment. Also the contamination of food with MDR bacteria, particularly of meat and meat products, is a concern. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of MDR bacteria in chicken meat on the Austrian market. For this study, 50 chicken meat samples were analysed. All samples originated from chickens slaughtered in Austrian slaughterhouses and were marked as produced in Austria. Samples were analysed for the presence of ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococci and VRE. Resistance genes of the isolated bacteria were characterised by PCR and sequencing. In the present study 26 ESBL producing E. coli, five mecA gene harbouring Staphylococci (but no MRSA), and four VRE were detected in chicken meat samples of Austrian origin. In 24 (48%) of the samples no ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, MRSA, methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS) or VRE could be detected. None of the samples contained all three types of investigated multiresistant bacteria. In concordance to previous studies, CTX-M-1 and SHV-12 were the dominant ESBL genes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Resistance to Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Salmonella from a Broiler Supply Chain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11718-11726; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111718
Received: 26 August 2014 / Revised: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae varies worldwide, however, the incidence of ESBL-producing environmental Salmonella isolates is increasing. Salmonella is still one of the most important pathogens that occur in the poultry supply chain. Therefore, this study analyzed the susceptibility of [...] Read more.
The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae varies worldwide, however, the incidence of ESBL-producing environmental Salmonella isolates is increasing. Salmonella is still one of the most important pathogens that occur in the poultry supply chain. Therefore, this study analyzed the susceptibility of Salmonella isolates collected from a poultry supply chain to β-lactam antibiotics, and examined the phenotypes of the isolates based on enzyme-inducible AmpC β-lactamase analysis. All analysis of the putative positive isolates in the current study confirmed that 27.02% (77/285 analysis) of all ESBL tests realized with the isolates produced a profile of resistance consistent with β-lactamase production. All isolates of S. Minnesota serotype had ESBL phenotype. Aztreonam resistance was the least common amongst the Salmonella isolates, followed by ceftazidime. The presence of inducible chromosomal ESBL was detected in 14 different isolates of the 19 serotypes investigated. These results are very indicatives of the presence of ESBL genes in Salmonella isolates from a broiler supply chain, reaffirming the growing global problem of ESBL resistance. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1487-1547; doi:10.3390/ijerph120201487
Received: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2015 / Published: 28 January 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of [...] Read more.
Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations. Full article

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