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Mar. Drugs, Volume 15, Issue 8 (August 2017)

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Cover Story With recent advances in genomic sequencing, genome analysis, and analytical chemistry techniques, a [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle The Positive Correlation of the Enhanced Immune Response to PCV2 Subunit Vaccine by Conjugation of Chitosan Oligosaccharide with the Deacetylation Degree
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 236; doi:10.3390/md15080236
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), the degraded products of chitosan, have been demonstrated to have versatile biological functions. In primary studies, it has displayed significant adjuvant effects when mixed with other vaccines. In this study, chitosan oligosaccharides with different deacetylation degrees were prepared and conjugated
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Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), the degraded products of chitosan, have been demonstrated to have versatile biological functions. In primary studies, it has displayed significant adjuvant effects when mixed with other vaccines. In this study, chitosan oligosaccharides with different deacetylation degrees were prepared and conjugated to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subunit vaccine to enhance its immunogenicity. The vaccine conjugates were designed by the covalent linkage of COSs to PCV2 molecules and administered to BALB/c mice three times at two-week intervals. The results indicate that, as compared to the PCV2 group, COS–PCV2 conjugates remarkably enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity against PCV2 by promoting lymphocyte proliferation and initiating a mixed T-helper 1 (Th1)/T-helper 2 (Th2) response, including raised levels of PCV2-specific antibodies and an increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Noticeably, with the increasing deacetylation degree, the stronger immune responses to PCV2 were observed in the groups with COS-PCV2 vaccination. In comparison with NACOS (chitin oligosaccharides)–PCV2 and LCOS (chitosan oligosaccharides with low deacetylation degree)–PCV2, HCOS (chitosan oligosaccharides with high deacetylation degree)–PCV2 showed the highest adjuvant effect, even comparable to that of PCV2/ISA206 (a commercialized adjuvant) group. In summary, COS conjugation might be a viable strategy to enhance the immune response to PCV2 subunit vaccine, and the adjuvant effect was positively correlated with the deacetylation degree of COS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Spirulina platensis Improves Mitochondrial Function Impaired by Elevated Oxidative Stress in Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (ASCs) and Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs), and Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) Horses
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 237; doi:10.3390/md15080237
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is a steadily growing life-threatening endocrine disorder linked to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation. Inflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue constitutes the direct tissue milieu for various cell populations, including adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs), widely considered as
[...] Read more.
Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is a steadily growing life-threatening endocrine disorder linked to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation. Inflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue constitutes the direct tissue milieu for various cell populations, including adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs), widely considered as a potential therapeutic cell source in the course of the treatment of metabolic disorders. Moreover, elevated oxidative stress induces inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)—the first-line cells exposed to dietary compounds. In the conducted research, we showed that in vitro application of Spirulina platensis contributes to the restoration of ASCs’ and IECs’ morphology and function through the reduction of cellular oxidative stress and inflammation. Enhanced viability, suppressed senescence, and improved proliferation of ASCs and IECs isolated from metabolic syndrome-affected individuals were evident following exposition to Spirulina. A protective effect of the investigated extract against mitochondrial dysfunction and degeneration was also observed. Moreover, our data demonstrate that Spirulina extract effectively suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. In vivo studies showed that horses fed with a diet based on Spirulina platensis supplementation lost weight and their insulin sensitivity improved. Thus, our results indicate the engagement of Spirulina platensis nourishing as an interesting alternative approach for supporting the conventional treatment of equine metabolic syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sinulariolide Suppresses Cell Migration and Invasion by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/-9 and Urokinase through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway in Human Bladder Cancer Cells
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 238; doi:10.3390/md15080238
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Sinulariolide is a natural product extracted from the cultured-type soft coral Sinularia flexibilis, and possesses bioactivity against the movement of several types of cancer cells. However, the molecular pathway behind its effects on human bladder cancer remain poorly understood. Using a human
[...] Read more.
Sinulariolide is a natural product extracted from the cultured-type soft coral Sinularia flexibilis, and possesses bioactivity against the movement of several types of cancer cells. However, the molecular pathway behind its effects on human bladder cancer remain poorly understood. Using a human bladder cancer cell line as an in vitro model, this study investigated the underlying mechanism of sinulariolide against cell migration/invasion in TSGH-8301 cells. We found that sinulariolide inhibited TSGH-8301 cell migration/invasion, and the effect was concentration-dependent. Furthermore, the protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9, as well as urokinase, were significantly decreased after 24-h sinulariolide treatment. Meanwhile, the increased expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were in parallel with an increased concentration of sinulariolide. Finally, the expressions of several key phosphorylated proteins in the mTOR signaling pathway were also downregulated by sinulariolide treatment. Our results demonstrated that sinulariolide has significant effects against TSGH-8301 cell migration/invasion, and its effects were associated with decreased levels of MMP-2/-9 and urokinase expression, as well as increased TIMP-1/TIMP-2 expression. The inhibitory effects were mediated by reducing phosphorylation proteins of the PI3K, AKT, and mTOR signaling pathway. The findings suggested that sinulariolide is a good candidate for advanced investigation with the aim of developing a new drug for the treatment of human bladder cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products from Coral Reef Organisms)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Saccharomonopyrones A–C, New α-Pyrones from a Marine Sediment-Derived Bacterium Saccharomonospora sp. CNQ-490
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 239; doi:10.3390/md15080239
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
Intensive study of the organic extract of the marine-derived bacterium Saccharomonospora sp. CNQ-490 has yielded three new α-pyrones, saccharomonopyrones A–C (13). The chemical structures of these compounds were assigned from the interpretation of 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectrometry
[...] Read more.
Intensive study of the organic extract of the marine-derived bacterium Saccharomonospora sp. CNQ-490 has yielded three new α-pyrones, saccharomonopyrones A–C (13). The chemical structures of these compounds were assigned from the interpretation of 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectrometry data. Saccharomonopyrone A (1) is the first α-pyrone microbial natural product bearing the ethyl-butyl ether chain in the molecule, while saccharomonopyrones B and C possess unusual 3-methyl and a 6-alkyl side-chain within a 3,4,5,6-tetrasubstituted α-pyrone moiety. Saccharomonopyrone A exhibited weak antioxidant activity using a cation radical scavenging activity assay with an IC50 value of 140 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products from Marine Actinomycetes)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Coagulant and Anti-Thrombotic Properties of Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra): In Vitro and Animal Studies
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 240; doi:10.3390/md15080240
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities have been found in various marine biota. In this study, a previously characterised anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant extract from blacklip abalone was fractionated by anion exchange chromatography (AEC), pooled (on a sulphated polysaccharide basis) and administered to
[...] Read more.
Sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities have been found in various marine biota. In this study, a previously characterised anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant extract from blacklip abalone was fractionated by anion exchange chromatography (AEC), pooled (on a sulphated polysaccharide basis) and administered to Wistar rats via oral gavage (N = 8) for assessment as an oral therapeutic. To ensure that the preparation had anti-coagulant activity prior to oral administration, it was assessed in rat blood by thromboelastography (TEG) significantly increasing reaction (R) time (or time until clot formation). Following in vitro confirmation of anti-coagulant activity, 40 mg of the preparation was orally administered to rats with blood samples collected at 2, 4, and 6 h post-gavage. Assessment of all blood samples by TEG showed some prolongation of R time from 355 to 380 s after 4 h. Dosing of the post-gavage blood samples with the abalone preparation to confirm anti-thrombotic activity in vitro revealed residual anti-coagulant activity, further suggesting that oral administration did increase anti-coagulant potential in the collected blood but that bioavailability was low. Assessment of tissues and haematological parameters showed no obvious harmful effects of the abalone preparation in animals. In summary, even though oral administration of fractionated and pooled blacklip abalone extract to rats delayed clotting after 4 h, bioavailability of the preparation appeared to be low and may be more appropriate for intravenous administration as an anti-thrombotic or anti-coagulant therapeutic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Target Identification of Marine Products)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Tissue Distribution of an Insulin-Like Androgenic Gland Hormone (IAG) of the Male Red Deep-Sea Crab, Chaceon quinquedens
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 241; doi:10.3390/md15080241
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 29 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) found in decapod crustaceans is known to regulate sexual development in males. IAG is produced in the male-specific endocrine tissue, the androgenic gland (AG); however, IAG expression has been also observed in other tissues of decapod crustacean
[...] Read more.
The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) found in decapod crustaceans is known to regulate sexual development in males. IAG is produced in the male-specific endocrine tissue, the androgenic gland (AG); however, IAG expression has been also observed in other tissues of decapod crustacean species including Callinectes sapidus and Scylla paramamosain. This study aimed to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of IAG from the AG of male red deep-sea crabs, Chaceon quinquedens (ChqIAG), and to examine its tissue distribution. To this end, we employed polymerase chain reaction cloning with degenerate primers and 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length ChqIAG cDNA sequence (1555 nt) includes a 366 nt 5′ untranslated region a 453 nt open reading frame encoding 151 amino acids, and a relatively long 3′ UTR of 733 nt. The ORF consists of a 19 aa signal peptide, 32 aa B chain, 56 aa C chain, and 44 aa A chain. The putative ChqIAG amino acid sequence is most similar to those found in other crab species, including C. sapidus and S. paramamosain, which are clustered together phylogenetically. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Use of Antibiotics for Maintenance of Axenic Cultures of Amphidinium carterae for the Analysis of Translation
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 242; doi:10.3390/md15080242
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
Most dinoflagellates in culture are bacterized, complicating the quantification of protein synthesis, as well as the analysis of its regulation. In bacterized cultures of Amphidinium carterae Hulbert, up to 80% of protein synthetic activity appears to be predominantly bacterial based on responses to
[...] Read more.
Most dinoflagellates in culture are bacterized, complicating the quantification of protein synthesis, as well as the analysis of its regulation. In bacterized cultures of Amphidinium carterae Hulbert, up to 80% of protein synthetic activity appears to be predominantly bacterial based on responses to inhibitors of protein synthesis. To circumvent this, axenic cultures of A. carterae were obtained and shown to respond to inhibitors of protein synthesis in a manner characteristic of eukaryotes. However, these responses changed with time in culture correlating with the reappearance of bacteria. Here we show that culture with kanamycin (50 μg/mL), carbenicillin (100 μg/mL), and streptomycin sulfate (50 μg/mL) (KCS), but not 100 units/mL of penicillin and streptomycin (PS), prevents the reappearance of bacteria and allows A. carterae protein synthesis to be quantified without the contribution of an associated bacterial community. We demonstrate that A. carterae can grow in the absence of a bacterial community. Furthermore, maintenance in KCS does not inhibit the growth of A. carterae cultures but slightly extends the growth phase and allows accumulation to somewhat higher saturation densities. We also show that cultures of A. carterae maintained in KCS respond to the eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide, emetine, and harringtonine. Establishment of these culture conditions will facilitate our ability to use polysome fractionation and ribosome profiling to study mRNA recruitment. Furthermore, this study shows that a simple and fast appraisal of the presence of a bacterial community in A. carterae cultures can be made by comparing responses to cycloheximide and chloramphenicol rather than depending on lengthier culture-based assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology II 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Strepchazolins A and B: Two New Alkaloids from a Marine Streptomyces chartreusis NA02069
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 244; doi:10.3390/md15080244
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Two new alkaloids, strepchazolins A (1) and B (2), together with a previously reported compound, streptazolin (3), were isolated from a marine actinomycete, Streptomyces chartreusis NA02069, collected in the Coast of Hainan Island, China. The structures of
[...] Read more.
Two new alkaloids, strepchazolins A (1) and B (2), together with a previously reported compound, streptazolin (3), were isolated from a marine actinomycete, Streptomyces chartreusis NA02069, collected in the Coast of Hainan Island, China. The structures of new compounds were determined by extensive NMR, mass spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analysis, as well as modified Mosher’s method. Compound 1 showed weak anti-Bacillus subtilis activity with the MIC value of 64.0 μM, and weak inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro with IC50 value of 50.6 μM, while its diastereoisomer, Compound 2, is almost inactive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products from Marine Actinomycetes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Bifurcatriol, a New Antiprotozoal Acyclic Diterpene from the Brown Alga Bifurcaria bifurcata
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 245; doi:10.3390/md15080245
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Linear diterpenes that are commonly found in brown algae are of high chemotaxonomic and ecological importance. This study reports bifurcatriol (1), a new linear diterpene featuring two stereogenic centers isolated from the Irish brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata. The gross structure of this
[...] Read more.
Linear diterpenes that are commonly found in brown algae are of high chemotaxonomic and ecological importance. This study reports bifurcatriol (1), a new linear diterpene featuring two stereogenic centers isolated from the Irish brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata. The gross structure of this new natural product was elucidated based on its spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D-NMR, HRMS). Its absolute configuration was identified by experimental and computational vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy, combined with the calculation of 13C-NMR chemical shielding constants. Bifurcatriol (1) was tested for in vitro antiprotozoal activity towards a small panel of parasites (Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi, and Leishmania donovani) and cytotoxicity against mammalian primary cells. The highest activity was exerted against the malaria parasite P. falciparum (IC50 value 0.65 μg/mL) with low cytotoxicity (IC50 value 56.6 μg/mL). To our knowledge, this is the first successful application of VCD and DP4 probability analysis of the calculated 13C-NMR chemical shifts for the simultaneous assignment of the absolute configuration of multiple stereogenic centers in a long-chain acyclic natural product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiprotozoal Marine Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle The Neuroprotective Marine Compound Psammaplysene A Binds the RNA-Binding Protein HNRNPK
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 246; doi:10.3390/md15080246
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
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Abstract
In previous work, we characterized the strong neuroprotective properties of the marine compound Psammaplysene A (PA) in in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration. Based on its strong neuroprotective activity, the current work attempts to identify the physical target of PA to
[...] Read more.
In previous work, we characterized the strong neuroprotective properties of the marine compound Psammaplysene A (PA) in in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration. Based on its strong neuroprotective activity, the current work attempts to identify the physical target of PA to gain mechanistic insight into its molecular action. Two distinct methods, used in parallel, to purify protein-binding partners of PA led to the identification of HNRNPK as a direct target of PA. Based on surface plasmon resonance, we find that the binding of PA to HNRNPK is RNA-dependent. These findings suggest a role for HNRNPK-dependent processes in neurodegeneration/neuroprotection, and warrant further study of HNRNPK in this context. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Algicidal Activity of Bacillamide Alkaloids and Their Analogues against Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 247; doi:10.3390/md15080247
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
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Abstract
Harmful algal blooms have become a great challenge to global aquatic ecosystems over the past decades. Given their low toxicity, high selectivity, and environment-friendly properties, the use of natural products and their analogues as algicides has proven to be particularly efficient. In the
[...] Read more.
Harmful algal blooms have become a great challenge to global aquatic ecosystems over the past decades. Given their low toxicity, high selectivity, and environment-friendly properties, the use of natural products and their analogues as algicides has proven to be particularly efficient. In the present study, algicidal activity of naturally occurring bacillamides A–C, alkaloid (1), and neobacillamide A, as well as their synthetic analogues were investigated intensively. Bioassay results showed that, relative to natural bacillamide alkaloids, aniline-derived analogue (10d) exhibited higher algicidal potential against three freshwater harmful algae Mycrocyctis aeruginosa, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, suggesting that it could be used as a promising lead compound to develop novel algicide for controlling harmful algal blooms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Marine Inspired 2-(5-Halo-1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamines as Modulators of Serotonin Receptors: An Example Illustrating the Power of Bromine as Part of the Uniquely Marine Chemical Space
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 248; doi:10.3390/md15080248
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
In previous studies, we have isolated several marine indole alkaloids and evaluated them in the forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity test, revealing their potential as antidepressant and sedative drug leads. Amongst the reported metabolites to display such activities was 5-bromo-N
[...] Read more.
In previous studies, we have isolated several marine indole alkaloids and evaluated them in the forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity test, revealing their potential as antidepressant and sedative drug leads. Amongst the reported metabolites to display such activities was 5-bromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Owing to the importance of the judicious introduction of halogens into drug candidates, we synthesized two series built on a 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine scaffold with different halogen substitutions. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo antidepressant and sedative activities using the mouse forced swim and locomotor activity tests. Receptor binding studies of these compounds to serotonin (5-HT) receptors were conducted. Amongst the prepared compounds, 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-2-oxoacetamide (1a), 2-(5-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-2-oxoacetamide (1d), 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine (2a), 2-(5-chloro-1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine (2c), 2-(5-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine (2d), and 2-(5-iodo-1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine (2e) have been shown to possess significant antidepressant-like action, while compounds 2c, 2d, and 2e exhibited potent sedative activity. Compounds 2a, 2c, 2d, and 2e showed nanomolar affinities to serotonin receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT7. The in vitro data indicates that the antidepressant action exerted by these compounds in vivo is mediated, at least in part, via interaction with serotonin receptors. The data presented here shows the valuable role that bromine plays in providing novel chemical space and electrostatic interactions. Bromine is ubiquitous in the marine environment and a common element of marine natural products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis of Marine-Derived Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Two Furanosesterterpenoids from the Sponge Luffariella variabilis
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 249; doi:10.3390/md15080249
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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Abstract
Two new sesterterpenoids, 1 and 2, were isolated from the sponge Luffariella variabilis. Their planar structures were characterized with spectroscopic analyses. The sole chiral center of compound 1 was elucidated as 12R by comparing observed and calculated optical rotation values. The
[...] Read more.
Two new sesterterpenoids, 1 and 2, were isolated from the sponge Luffariella variabilis. Their planar structures were characterized with spectroscopic analyses. The sole chiral center of compound 1 was elucidated as 12R by comparing observed and calculated optical rotation values. The configurations of compound 2 were determined by NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) studies. Furthermore, compound 2 showed cytotoxicity at IC50 1.0 µM against NBT-T2 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Upregulation and Identification of Antibiotic Activity of a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. via Co-Cultures with Human Pathogens
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 250; doi:10.3390/md15080250
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
PDF Full-text (1057 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Marine natural product drug discovery has begun to play an important role in the treatment of disease, with several recently approved drugs. In addition, numerous microbial natural products have been discovered from members of the order Actinomycetales, particularly in the genus Streptomyces,
[...] Read more.
Marine natural product drug discovery has begun to play an important role in the treatment of disease, with several recently approved drugs. In addition, numerous microbial natural products have been discovered from members of the order Actinomycetales, particularly in the genus Streptomyces, due to their metabolic diversity for production of biologically active secondary metabolites. However, many secondary metabolites cannot be produced under laboratory conditions because growth conditions in flask culture differ from conditions in the natural environment. Various experimental conditions (e.g., mixed fermentation) have been attempted to increase yields of previously described metabolites, cause production of previously undetected metabolites, and increase antibiotic activity. Adult ascidians—also known as tunicates—are sessile marine invertebrates, making them vulnerable to predation and therefore are hypothesized to use host-associated bacteria that produce biologically active secondary metabolites for chemical defense. A marine-derived Streptomyces sp. strain PTY087I2 was isolated from a Panamanian tunicate and subsequently co-cultured with human pathogens including Bacillus subtilis, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by extraction. Co-culture of Streptomyces sp. PTY087I2 with each of these human pathogens resulted in increased production of three antibiotics: granaticin, granatomycin D, and dihydrogranaticin B, as well as several analogues seen via molecular networking. In addition, co-cultures resulted in strongly enhanced biological activity against the Gram positive human pathogens used in these experiments. Expanded utilization of co-culture experiments to allow for competitive interactions may enhance metabolite production and further our understanding of these microbial interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connecting Marine Microbial Natural Products to Biosynthetic Pathways)
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Open AccessArticle Fatty Acid Profile Is Modulated by Dietary Resveratrol in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 252; doi:10.3390/md15080252
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
To produce fish of a high quality that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) and simultaneously generate more sustainable aquaculture, the combined use of phytochemicals and vegetable oils in fish feed seems to be a promising approach. Resveratrol (RV) potentially induces
[...] Read more.
To produce fish of a high quality that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) and simultaneously generate more sustainable aquaculture, the combined use of phytochemicals and vegetable oils in fish feed seems to be a promising approach. Resveratrol (RV) potentially induces endogenous fatty acid synthesis, resulting in elevated n-3 FA levels in fish. RV putatively influences ∆6-desaturase, the key enzyme in FA metabolism, and serves as a ligand for PPARα, a transcription factor regulating β-oxidation. Rainbow trout (36.35 ± 0.03 g) were randomly allocated into six groups and fed diets with reduced fish oil levels (F4 = 4%, F2 = 2% and F0 = 0% of dry matter) supplemented with 0.3% (w/w) RV (F4 + RV, F2 + RV and F0 + RV). RV significantly affected FA composition in liver tissue and whole fish homogenates. 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were significantly increased whereas precursor FA were diminished in fish fed the F2 + RV and F0 + RV diets when compared to F4 + RV and F0. RV significantly elevated ∆6-desaturase protein levels in the livers of F0 + RV fed animals. Hepatic mRNA expression of ∆6-desaturase, PPARα, and its target genes were affected by the dietary fish oil level and not by dietary RV. The results of this study indicated a potential benefit of supplementing RV in fish oil deprived diets elevating n-3 FA levels in rainbow trout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Sources and Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids)
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Open AccessArticle A Dereplication and Bioguided Discovery Approach to Reveal New Compounds from a Marine-Derived Fungus Stilbella fimetaria
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 253; doi:10.3390/md15080253
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 13 August 2017
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Abstract
A marine-derived Stilbella fimetaria fungal strain was screened for new bioactive compounds based on two different approaches: (i) bio-guided approach using cytotoxicity and antimicrobial bioassays; and (ii) dereplication based approach using liquid chromatography with both diode array detection and high resolution mass spectrometry.
[...] Read more.
A marine-derived Stilbella fimetaria fungal strain was screened for new bioactive compounds based on two different approaches: (i) bio-guided approach using cytotoxicity and antimicrobial bioassays; and (ii) dereplication based approach using liquid chromatography with both diode array detection and high resolution mass spectrometry. This led to the discovery of several bioactive compound families with different biosynthetic origins, including pimarane-type diterpenoids and hybrid polyketide-non ribosomal peptide derived compounds. Prefractionation before bioassay screening proved to be a great aid in the dereplication process, since separate fractions displaying different bioactivities allowed a quick tentative identification of known antimicrobial compounds and of potential new analogues. A new pimarane-type diterpene, myrocin F, was discovered in trace amounts and displayed cytotoxicity towards various cancer cell lines. Further media optimization led to increased production followed by the purification and bioactivity screening of several new and known pimarane-type diterpenoids. A known broad-spectrum antifungal compound, ilicicolin H, was purified along with two new analogues, hydroxyl-ilicicolin H and ilicicolin I, and their antifungal activity was evaluated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Does Osmotic Stress Affect Natural Product Expression in Fungi?
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 254; doi:10.3390/md15080254
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 13 August 2017
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Abstract
The discovery of new natural products from fungi isolated from the marine environment has increased dramatically over the last few decades, leading to the identification of over 1000 new metabolites. However, most of the reported marine-derived species appear to be terrestrial in origin
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The discovery of new natural products from fungi isolated from the marine environment has increased dramatically over the last few decades, leading to the identification of over 1000 new metabolites. However, most of the reported marine-derived species appear to be terrestrial in origin yet at the same time, facultatively halo- or osmotolerant. An unanswered question regarding the apparent chemical productivity of marine-derived fungi is whether the common practice of fermenting strains in seawater contributes to enhanced secondary metabolism? To answer this question, a terrestrial isolate of Aspergillus aculeatus was fermented in osmotic and saline stress conditions in parallel across multiple sites. The ex-type strain of A. aculeatus was obtained from three different culture collections. Site-to-site variations in metabolite expression were observed, suggesting that subculturing of the same strain and subtle variations in experimental protocols can have pronounced effects upon metabolite expression. Replicated experiments at individual sites indicated that secondary metabolite production was divergent between osmotic and saline treatments. Titers of some metabolites increased or decreased in response to increasing osmolite (salt or glycerol) concentrations. Furthermore, in some cases, the expression of some secondary metabolites in relation to osmotic and saline stress was attributed to specific sources of the ex-type strains. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Novel High-Mannose Specific Lectin from the Green Alga Halimeda renschii Exhibits a Potent Anti-Influenza Virus Activity through High-Affinity Binding to the Viral Hemagglutinin
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 255; doi:10.3390/md15080255
Received: 8 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
We have isolated a novel lectin, named HRL40 from the green alga Halimeda renschii. In hemagglutination-inhibition test and oligosaccharide-binding experiment with 29 pyridylaminated oligosaccharides, HRL40 exhibited a strict binding specificity for high-mannose N-glycans having an exposed (α1-3) mannose residue in the
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We have isolated a novel lectin, named HRL40 from the green alga Halimeda renschii. In hemagglutination-inhibition test and oligosaccharide-binding experiment with 29 pyridylaminated oligosaccharides, HRL40 exhibited a strict binding specificity for high-mannose N-glycans having an exposed (α1-3) mannose residue in the D2 arm of branched mannosides, and did not have an affinity for monosaccharides and other oligosaccharides examined, including complex N-glycans, an N-glycan core pentasaccharide, and oligosaccharides from glycolipids. The carbohydrate binding profile of HRL40 resembled those of Type I high-mannose specific antiviral algal lectins, or the Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin (OAA) family, which were previously isolated from red algae and a blue-green alga (cyanobacterium). HRL40 potently inhibited the infection of influenza virus (A/H3N2/Udorn/72) into NCI-H292 cells with half-maximal effective dose (ED50) of 2.45 nM through high-affinity binding to a viral envelope hemagglutinin (KD, 3.69 × 10−11 M). HRL40 consisted of two isolectins (HRL40-1 and HRL40-2), which could be separated by reverse-phase HPLC. Both isolectins had the same molecular weight of 46,564 Da and were a disulfide -linked tetrameric protein of a 11,641 Da polypeptide containing at least 13 half-cystines. Thus, HRL40, which is the first Type I high-mannose specific antiviral lectin from the green alga, had the same carbohydrate binding specificity as the OAA family, but a molecular structure distinct from the family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structures, Functions and Applications of Marine Lectins)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Nine New Triterpene Glycosides, Magnumosides A1–A4, B1, B2, C1, C2 and C4, from the Vietnamese Sea Cucumber Neothyonidium (=Massinium) magnum: Structures and Activities against Tumor Cells Independently and in Synergy with Radioactive Irradiation
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 256; doi:10.3390/md15080256
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
Nine new sulfated triterpene glycosides, magnumosides A1 (1), A2 (2), A3 (3), A4 (4), B1 (5), B2 (6), C1 (7), C2
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Nine new sulfated triterpene glycosides, magnumosides A1 (1), A2 (2), A3 (3), A4 (4), B1 (5), B2 (6), C1 (7), C2 (8) and C4 (9) as well as a known colochiroside B2 (10) have been isolated from the tropical Indo-West Pacific sea cucumber Neothynidium (=Massinium) magnum (Phyllophoridae, Dendrochirotida) collected in the Vietnamese shallow waters. The structures of new glycosides were elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass-spectrometry. All the isolated new glycosides were characterized by the non-holostane type lanostane aglycones having 18(16)-lactone and 7(8)-double bond and differed from each other by the side chains and carbohydrate moieties structures. Magnumoside A1 (1) has unprecedented 20(24)-epoxy-group in the aglycone side chain. Magnumosides of the group A (14) contained disaccharide monosulfated carbohydrate moieties, of the group B (5, 6)—tetrasaccharide monosulfated carbohydrate moieties and, finally, of the group C (79)—tetrasaccharide disulfated carbohydrate moieties. The cytotoxic activities of the compounds 19 against mouse spleen lymphocytes, the ascites form of mouse Ehrlich carcinoma cells, human colorectal carcinoma DLD-1 cells as well as their hemolytic effects have been studied. Interestingly, the erythrocytes were more sensitive to the glycosides action than spleenocytes and cancer cells tested. The compounds 3 and 7 significantly inhibited the colony formation and decreased the size of colonies of DLD-1 cancer cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Moreover, the synergism of effects of radioactive irradiation and compounds 3 and 79 at subtoxic doses on proliferation of DLD-1 cells was demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycosides)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Evaluation of a Sodium Alginate-4-Aminosalicylic Acid Based Microporous Hydrogel for Potential Viscosupplementation for Joint Injuries and Arthritis-Induced Conditions
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 257; doi:10.3390/md15080257
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
A microporous hydrogel was developed using sodium alginate (alg) and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA). The synthesized hydrogel was characterized using various analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy
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A microporous hydrogel was developed using sodium alginate (alg) and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA). The synthesized hydrogel was characterized using various analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additonal carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups of 4-ASA provided significant lubrication and stress-triggered sol-gel transition to the conjugated hydrogel. In addition, cytotoxicity analysis was undertaken on the conjugated hydrogel using human dermal fibroblast-adult (HDFa) cells, displaying non-toxic characteristics. Drug release profiles displaying 49.6% in the first 8 h and 97.5% within 72 h, similar to the native polymer (42.8% in first 8 h and 90.1% within 72 h). Under applied external stimuli, the modified hydrogel displayed significant gelling properties and structure deformation/recovery behaviour, confirmed using rheological evaluation (viscosity and thixotropic area of 8095.3 mPas and 26.23%, respectively). The modified hydrogel, thus, offers great possibility for designing smart synovial fluids as a biomimetic aqueous lubricant for joint-related injuries and arthritis-induced conditions. In addtion, the combination of thixotropy, non-toxicity, and drug release capabilities enables potential viscosupplementation for clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Antifungal Activity of Compounds from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus clavatus R7
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 259; doi:10.3390/md15080259
Received: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
Two new coumarin derivatives, 4,4′-dimethoxy-5,5′-dimethyl-7,7′-oxydicoumarin (1), 7-(γ,γ-dimethylallyloxy)-5-methoxy-4-methylcoumarin (2), a new chromone derivative, (S)-5-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-4H-furo[3,4-g]benzopyran-4,8(6H)-dione (5), and a new sterone derivative, 24-hydroxylergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (6), along with two known bicoumarins, kotanin (3
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Two new coumarin derivatives, 4,4′-dimethoxy-5,5′-dimethyl-7,7′-oxydicoumarin (1), 7-(γ,γ-dimethylallyloxy)-5-methoxy-4-methylcoumarin (2), a new chromone derivative, (S)-5-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-4H-furo[3,4-g]benzopyran-4,8(6H)-dione (5), and a new sterone derivative, 24-hydroxylergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (6), along with two known bicoumarins, kotanin (3) and orlandin (4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus clavatus (collection No. R7), isolated from the root of Myoporum bontioides collected from Leizhou Peninsula, China. Their structures were elucidated using 1D- and 2D- NMR spectroscopy, and HRESIMS. The absolute configuration of compound 5 was determined by comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compound 6 significantly inhibited the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum musae and Penicillium italicum, compound 5 significantly inhibited Colletotrichum musae, and compounds 1, 3 and 4 greatly inhibited Fusarium oxysporum, showing the antifungal activities higher than those of the positive control, triadimefon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 5-Hydroxycyclopenicillone, a New β-Amyloid Fibrillization Inhibitor from a Sponge-Derived Fungus Trichoderma sp. HPQJ-34
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 260; doi:10.3390/md15080260
Received: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: A new cyclopentenone, 5-hydroxycyclopeni cillone (1), was isolated together with three known compounds, ar-turmerone (2), citreoisocoumarin (3), and 6-O-methyl-citreoisocoumarin (4), from a culture of the sponge-derived fungus Trichoderma sp. HPQJ-34. The
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Abstract: A new cyclopentenone, 5-hydroxycyclopeni cillone (1), was isolated together with three known compounds, ar-turmerone (2), citreoisocoumarin (3), and 6-O-methyl-citreoisocoumarin (4), from a culture of the sponge-derived fungus Trichoderma sp. HPQJ-34. The structures of 14 were characterized using comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by comparison of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra with literature values used for the reported analogue, cyclopenicillone (5), which was not isolated in this research. Compound 1 was shown to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals, and decrease β-amyloid (Aβ) fibrillization in vitro. Moreover, 1 significantly reduced H2O2-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings suggested that compound 1, a newly discovered cyclopentenone, has moderate anti-oxidative, anti-Aβ fibrillization properties and neuroprotective effects, and might be a good free radical scavenger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Microbes II, 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Myticalins: A Novel Multigenic Family of Linear, Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Mussels (Mytilus spp.)
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 261; doi:10.3390/md15080261
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
The application of high-throughput sequencing technologies to non-model organisms has brought new opportunities for the identification of bioactive peptides from genomes and transcriptomes. From this point of view, marine invertebrates represent a potentially rich, yet largely unexplored resource for de novo discovery due
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The application of high-throughput sequencing technologies to non-model organisms has brought new opportunities for the identification of bioactive peptides from genomes and transcriptomes. From this point of view, marine invertebrates represent a potentially rich, yet largely unexplored resource for de novo discovery due to their adaptation to diverse challenging habitats. Bioinformatics analyses of available genomic and transcriptomic data allowed us to identify myticalins, a novel family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, and a similar family of AMPs from Modiolus spp., named modiocalins. Their coding sequence encompasses two conserved N-terminal (signal peptide) and C-terminal (propeptide) regions and a hypervariable central cationic region corresponding to the mature peptide. Myticalins are taxonomically restricted to Mytiloida and they can be classified into four subfamilies. These AMPs are subject to considerable interindividual sequence variability and possibly to presence/absence variation. Functional assays performed on selected members of this family indicate a remarkable tissue-specific expression (in gills) and broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall, we present the first linear AMPs ever described in marine mussels and confirm the great potential of bioinformatics tools for the de novo discovery of bioactive peptides in non-model organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Target Identification of Marine Products)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Investigating the Biosynthesis of Natural Products from Marine Proteobacteria: A Survey of Molecules and Strategies
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 235; doi:10.3390/md15080235
Received: 28 May 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
The phylum proteobacteria contains a wide array of Gram-negative marine bacteria. With recent advances in genomic sequencing, genome analysis, and analytical chemistry techniques, a whole host of information is being revealed about the primary and secondary metabolism of marine proteobacteria. This has led
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The phylum proteobacteria contains a wide array of Gram-negative marine bacteria. With recent advances in genomic sequencing, genome analysis, and analytical chemistry techniques, a whole host of information is being revealed about the primary and secondary metabolism of marine proteobacteria. This has led to the discovery of a growing number of medically relevant natural products, including novel leads for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and cancer. Of equal interest, marine proteobacteria produce natural products whose structure and biosynthetic mechanisms differ from those of their terrestrial and actinobacterial counterparts. Notable features of secondary metabolites produced by marine proteobacteria include halogenation, sulfur-containing heterocycles, non-ribosomal peptides, and polyketides with unusual biosynthetic logic. As advances are made in the technology associated with functional genomics, such as computational sequence analysis, targeted DNA manipulation, and heterologous expression, it has become easier to probe the mechanisms for natural product biosynthesis. This review will focus on genomics driven approaches to understanding the biosynthetic mechanisms for natural products produced by marine proteobacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connecting Marine Microbial Natural Products to Biosynthetic Pathways)
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Open AccessReview Marine Lipids on Cardiovascular Diseases and Other Chronic Diseases Induced by Diet: An Insight Provided by Proteomics and Lipidomics
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 258; doi:10.3390/md15080258
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Marine lipids, especially ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have largely been linked to prevention of diet-induced diseases. The anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic properties of EPA and DHA supplementation have been well-described. However, there is still a significant
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Marine lipids, especially ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have largely been linked to prevention of diet-induced diseases. The anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic properties of EPA and DHA supplementation have been well-described. However, there is still a significant lack of information about their particular mechanism of action. Furthermore, repeated meta-analyses have not shown conclusive results in support of their beneficial health effects. Modern “omics” approaches, namely proteomics and lipidomics, have made it possible to identify some of the mechanisms behind the benefits of marine lipids in the metabolic syndrome and related diseases, i.e., cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Although until now their use has been scarce, these “omics” have brought new insights in this area of nutrition research. The purpose of the present review is to comprehensively show the research articles currently available in the literature which have specifically applied proteomics, lipidomics or both approaches to investigate the role of marine lipids intake in the prevention or palliation of these chronic pathologies related to diet. The methodology adopted, the class of marine lipids examined, the diet-related disease studied, and the main findings obtained in each investigation will be reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids 2017)
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Other

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Open AccessFeature PaperShort Note Molecular Identification of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa (Dinophyceae) from Environmental Samples
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 243; doi:10.3390/md15080243
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is increasing across the Pacific and the distribution of the causative dinoflagellates appears to be expanding. Subtle differences in thecal plate morphology are used to distinguish dinoflagellate species, which are difficult to determine using light microscopy. For these reasons
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Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is increasing across the Pacific and the distribution of the causative dinoflagellates appears to be expanding. Subtle differences in thecal plate morphology are used to distinguish dinoflagellate species, which are difficult to determine using light microscopy. For these reasons we sought to develop a Quantitative PCR assay that would detect all species from both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa genera in order to rapidly screen environmental samples for potentially toxic species. Additionally, a specific assay for F. paulensis was developed as this species is of concern in New Zealand coastal waters. Using the assays we analyzed 31 samples from three locations around New Zealand and the Kingdom of Tonga. Fourteen samples in total were positive for Gambierdiscus/Fukuyoa and two samples were also positive using the F. paulensis assay. Samples from the Kermadec Islands were further characterized using high-throughput sequencing metabarcoding. The majority of reads corresponded to Gambierdiscus species with three species identified at all sites (G. australes, G. honu and G. polynesiensis). This is the first confirmed identification of G. polynesiensis, a known ciguatoxin producer, in New Zealand waters. Other known toxin-producing genera were also detected, included Alexandrium, Amphidinium, Azadinium, Dinophysis, Ostreopsis, and Prorocentrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Harmful Marine Phytoplankton)
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