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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 257; doi:10.3390/md15080257

Synthesis and Evaluation of a Sodium Alginate-4-Aminosalicylic Acid Based Microporous Hydrogel for Potential Viscosupplementation for Joint Injuries and Arthritis-Induced Conditions

1
Wits Advanced Drug Delivery Platform Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Therapeutics Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, South Africa
2
Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, 33El Bohouth St. (former El-Tahrir St.), Dokk P.O.12622i, Giza, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Abstract

A microporous hydrogel was developed using sodium alginate (alg) and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA). The synthesized hydrogel was characterized using various analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additonal carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups of 4-ASA provided significant lubrication and stress-triggered sol-gel transition to the conjugated hydrogel. In addition, cytotoxicity analysis was undertaken on the conjugated hydrogel using human dermal fibroblast-adult (HDFa) cells, displaying non-toxic characteristics. Drug release profiles displaying 49.6% in the first 8 h and 97.5% within 72 h, similar to the native polymer (42.8% in first 8 h and 90.1% within 72 h). Under applied external stimuli, the modified hydrogel displayed significant gelling properties and structure deformation/recovery behaviour, confirmed using rheological evaluation (viscosity and thixotropic area of 8095.3 mPas and 26.23%, respectively). The modified hydrogel, thus, offers great possibility for designing smart synovial fluids as a biomimetic aqueous lubricant for joint-related injuries and arthritis-induced conditions. In addtion, the combination of thixotropy, non-toxicity, and drug release capabilities enables potential viscosupplementation for clinical application. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogel; sodium alginate; 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA); viscosupplementation; arthritis hydrogel; sodium alginate; 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA); viscosupplementation; arthritis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chejara, D.R.; Mabrouk, M.; Kumar, P.; Choonara, Y.E.; Kondiah, P.P.D.; Badhe, R.V.; Toit, L.C.; Bijukumar, D.; Pillay, V. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Sodium Alginate-4-Aminosalicylic Acid Based Microporous Hydrogel for Potential Viscosupplementation for Joint Injuries and Arthritis-Induced Conditions. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 257.

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