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Special Issue "Harmful Marine Phytoplankton"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Wenche Eikrem

1. Marin Biogeochemistry and Oceanography, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway
2. Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Website | E-Mail
Interests: experienced in taxonomy and identification of microalgae/protists including toxic algae using light, fluorescence, transmission and scanning electron microscopy and the isolation and culturing of algae. My work includes the description of several species new to science, ultrastructural studies of protists and development of preparation methods and protocols. Recently, I have started working with molecular techniques such as qPCR and barcoding. I am also the curator of the Hasle diatom collection at the Natural History Museum in Oslo
Guest Editor
Dr. Anette Engesmo

Marin Biogeochemistry and Oceanography, Norwegian Institute for Water Research. Gaustadalléen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway
E-Mail
Interests: My main research interests are developing molecular methods for use in monitoring of harmful marine microalgae. I mainly work with qPCR, but am also interested in metabarcoding and microarrays. Experinced in molecular taxonomy and identification of microalgae using DNA-based methods, aswell as light, confocal, transmission and scanning electron microscopy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last few decades, harmful marine phytoplankton has received significant attention from the scientific community. The consensus is that bloom events are increasing in frequency and practically every coastal region in the world is affected. Increasing our knowledge about the causative species, the toxins they produce and the impact they have on the marine environment is a huge task and in this Special Issue we will publish high quality papers regarding all aspects of harmful marine microalgae, also including toxin producing cyanobacteria.

We cordially invite you to submit your research to this Special Issue of Marine Drugs, and we look very much forward to your input.

Dr. Wenche Eikrem
Dr. Anette Engesmo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Toxic microalgae
  • Molecular monitoring
  • Identification and quantification
  • Marine biotoxins
  • Toxin detection and characterization
  • Hemolytic activity
  • Public health
  • Ciguatera
  • Shellfish toxins
  • Ichthyotoxicity
  • Cyanotoxins
  • Epidemiology
  • Novel, toxic species

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle HPLC-HRMS Quantification of the Ichthyotoxin Karmitoxin from Karlodinium armiger
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(9), 278; doi:10.3390/md15090278
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 27 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
PDF Full-text (1990 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Being able to quantify ichthyotoxic metabolites from microalgae allows for the determination of ecologically-relevant concentrations that can be simulated in laboratory experiments, as well as to investigate bioaccumulation and degradation. Here, the ichthyotoxin karmitoxin, produced by Karlodinium armiger, was quantified in laboratory-grown
[...] Read more.
Being able to quantify ichthyotoxic metabolites from microalgae allows for the determination of ecologically-relevant concentrations that can be simulated in laboratory experiments, as well as to investigate bioaccumulation and degradation. Here, the ichthyotoxin karmitoxin, produced by Karlodinium armiger, was quantified in laboratory-grown cultures using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionisation high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HRMS). Prior to the quantification of karmitoxin, a standard of karmitoxin was purified from K. armiger cultures (80 L). The standard was quantified by fluorescent derivatisation using Waters AccQ-Fluor reagent and derivatised fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2 as standards, as each contain a primary amine. Various sample preparation methods for whole culture samples were assessed, including six different solid phase extraction substrates. During analysis of culture samples, MS source conditions were monitored with chloramphenicol and valinomycin as external standards over prolonged injection sequences (>12 h) and karmitoxin concentrations were determined using the response factor of a closely eluting iturin A2 internal standard. Using this method the limit of quantification was 0.11 μg·mL−1, and the limit of detection was found to be 0.03 μg·mL−1. Matrix effects were determined with the use of K. armiger cultures grown with 13C-labelled bicarbonate as the primary carbon source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Harmful Marine Phytoplankton)
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Open AccessArticle The Epiphytic Genus Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae) in the Kermadec Islands and Zealandia Regions of the Southwestern Pacific and the Associated Risk of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(7), 219; doi:10.3390/md15070219
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Species in the genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs) and/or maitotoxins (MTXs), which may cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans if contaminated fish are consumed. Species of Gambierdiscus have previously been isolated from macroalgae at Rangitahua (Raoul Island and North Meyer Islands, northern
[...] Read more.
Species in the genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs) and/or maitotoxins (MTXs), which may cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans if contaminated fish are consumed. Species of Gambierdiscus have previously been isolated from macroalgae at Rangitahua (Raoul Island and North Meyer Islands, northern Kermadec Islands), and the opportunity was taken to sample for Gambierdiscus at the more southerly Macauley Island during an expedition in 2016. Gambierdiscus cells were isolated, cultured, and DNA extracted and sequenced to determine the species present. Bulk cultures were tested for CTXs and MTXs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The species isolated were G. australes, which produced MTX-1 (ranging from 3 to 36 pg/cell), and G. polynesiensis, which produced neither MTX-1 nor, unusually, any known CTXs. Isolates of both species produced putative MTX-3. The risk of fish, particularly herbivorous fish, causing CFP in the Zealandia and Kermadec Islands region is real, although in mainland New Zealand the risk is currently low. Both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa have been recorded in the sub-tropical northern region of New Zealand, and so the risk may increase with warming seas and shift in the distribution of Gambierdiscus species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Harmful Marine Phytoplankton)
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Open AccessArticle Ciguatoxins and Maitotoxins in Extracts of Sixteen Gambierdiscus Isolates and One Fukuyoa Isolate from the South Pacific and Their Toxicity to Mice by Intraperitoneal and Oral Administration
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(7), 208; doi:10.3390/md15070208
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ciguatoxins (CTXs), and possibly maitotoxins (MTXs), are responsible for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, an important health problem for consumers of reef fish (such as inhabitants of islands in the South Pacific Ocean). The habitational range of the Gambierdiscus species is expanding, and new species
[...] Read more.
Ciguatoxins (CTXs), and possibly maitotoxins (MTXs), are responsible for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, an important health problem for consumers of reef fish (such as inhabitants of islands in the South Pacific Ocean). The habitational range of the Gambierdiscus species is expanding, and new species are being discovered. In order to provide information on the potential health risk of the Gambierdiscus species, and one Fukuyoa species (found in the Cook Islands, the Kermadec Islands, mainland New Zealand, and New South Wales, Australia), 17 microalgae isolates were collected from these areas. Unialgal cultures were grown and extracts of the culture isolates were analysed for CTXs and MTXs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and their toxicity to mice was determined by intraperitoneal and oral administration. An isolate of G. carpenteri contained neither CTXs nor MTXs, while 15 other isolates (including G. australes, G. cheloniae, G. pacificus, G. honu, and F. paulensis) contained only MTX-1 and/or MTX-3. An isolate of G. polynesiensis contained both CTXs and MTX-3. All the extracts were toxic to mice by intraperitoneal injection, but those containing only MTX-1 and/or -3 were much less toxic by oral administration. The extract of G. polynesiensis was highly toxic by both routes of administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Harmful Marine Phytoplankton)

Review

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Open AccessReview Cyanobacterial Toxins of the Laurentian Great Lakes, Their Toxicological Effects, and Numerical Limits in Drinking Water
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(6), 160; doi:10.3390/md15060160
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 22 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
PDF Full-text (4322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous phototrophic bacteria that inhabit diverse environments across the planet. Seasonally, they dominate many eutrophic lakes impacted by excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forming dense accumulations of biomass known as cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms or cyanoHABs. Their dominance in eutrophic
[...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous phototrophic bacteria that inhabit diverse environments across the planet. Seasonally, they dominate many eutrophic lakes impacted by excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forming dense accumulations of biomass known as cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms or cyanoHABs. Their dominance in eutrophic lakes is attributed to a variety of unique adaptations including N and P concentrating mechanisms, N2 fixation, colony formation that inhibits predation, vertical movement via gas vesicles, and the production of toxic or otherwise bioactive molecules. While some of these molecules have been explored for their medicinal benefits, others are potent toxins harmful to humans, animals, and other wildlife known as cyanotoxins. In humans these cyanotoxins affect various tissues, including the liver, central and peripheral nervous system, kidneys, and reproductive organs among others. They induce acute effects at low doses in the parts-per-billion range and some are tumor promoters linked to chronic diseases such as liver and colorectal cancer. The occurrence of cyanoHABs and cyanotoxins in lakes presents challenges for maintaining safe recreational aquatic environments and the production of potable drinking water. CyanoHABs are a growing problem in the North American (Laurentian) Great Lakes basin. This review summarizes information on the occurrence of cyanoHABs in the Great Lakes, toxicological effects of cyanotoxins, and appropriate numerical limits on cyanotoxins in finished drinking water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Harmful Marine Phytoplankton)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessFeature PaperShort Note Molecular Identification of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa (Dinophyceae) from Environmental Samples
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 243; doi:10.3390/md15080243
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is increasing across the Pacific and the distribution of the causative dinoflagellates appears to be expanding. Subtle differences in thecal plate morphology are used to distinguish dinoflagellate species, which are difficult to determine using light microscopy. For these reasons
[...] Read more.
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is increasing across the Pacific and the distribution of the causative dinoflagellates appears to be expanding. Subtle differences in thecal plate morphology are used to distinguish dinoflagellate species, which are difficult to determine using light microscopy. For these reasons we sought to develop a Quantitative PCR assay that would detect all species from both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa genera in order to rapidly screen environmental samples for potentially toxic species. Additionally, a specific assay for F. paulensis was developed as this species is of concern in New Zealand coastal waters. Using the assays we analyzed 31 samples from three locations around New Zealand and the Kingdom of Tonga. Fourteen samples in total were positive for Gambierdiscus/Fukuyoa and two samples were also positive using the F. paulensis assay. Samples from the Kermadec Islands were further characterized using high-throughput sequencing metabarcoding. The majority of reads corresponded to Gambierdiscus species with three species identified at all sites (G. australes, G. honu and G. polynesiensis). This is the first confirmed identification of G. polynesiensis, a known ciguatoxin producer, in New Zealand waters. Other known toxin-producing genera were also detected, included Alexandrium, Amphidinium, Azadinium, Dinophysis, Ostreopsis, and Prorocentrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Harmful Marine Phytoplankton)
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Figure 1

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