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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 254; doi:10.3390/md15080254

Does Osmotic Stress Affect Natural Product Expression in Fungi?

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
2
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of PEI, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
3
Nautilus Biosciences Canada Inc., 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
4
Mer Molécules Santé—EA 2160, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Université de Nantes, 9 Rue Bias, 44035 Nantes, France
5
Department of Food Science, National Quemoy University, Kinmen County 89250, Taiwan
6
Institute of Marine Biology and Centre of Excellence for the Oceans, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning Road, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
7
Marine Biodiscovery Centre, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, Scotland, UK
8
School of Science & Sport, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, UK
9
Division of Chemistry and Structural Biology, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, 306 Carmody Road, St. Lucia QLD 4072, Australia
10
Texas Therapeutics Institute, The Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, 1881 East Rd., Houston, TX 77054, USA
11
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 13 August 2017
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Abstract

The discovery of new natural products from fungi isolated from the marine environment has increased dramatically over the last few decades, leading to the identification of over 1000 new metabolites. However, most of the reported marine-derived species appear to be terrestrial in origin yet at the same time, facultatively halo- or osmotolerant. An unanswered question regarding the apparent chemical productivity of marine-derived fungi is whether the common practice of fermenting strains in seawater contributes to enhanced secondary metabolism? To answer this question, a terrestrial isolate of Aspergillus aculeatus was fermented in osmotic and saline stress conditions in parallel across multiple sites. The ex-type strain of A. aculeatus was obtained from three different culture collections. Site-to-site variations in metabolite expression were observed, suggesting that subculturing of the same strain and subtle variations in experimental protocols can have pronounced effects upon metabolite expression. Replicated experiments at individual sites indicated that secondary metabolite production was divergent between osmotic and saline treatments. Titers of some metabolites increased or decreased in response to increasing osmolite (salt or glycerol) concentrations. Furthermore, in some cases, the expression of some secondary metabolites in relation to osmotic and saline stress was attributed to specific sources of the ex-type strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungi; metabolite expression; LC-MS; metabolome; osmotic stress fungi; metabolite expression; LC-MS; metabolome; osmotic stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Overy, D.; Correa, H.; Roullier, C.; Chi, W.-C.; Pang, K.-L.; Rateb, M.; Ebel, R.; Shang, Z.; Capon, R.; Bills, G.; Kerr, R. Does Osmotic Stress Affect Natural Product Expression in Fungi? Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 254.

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