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Special Issue "Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Maria Michela Corsaro

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: polysaccharides and oligosaccharides; marine extremophiles; secondary metabolites; structural elucidation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,                

Marine environments are a huge source of natural products. Among these, carbohydrates occupy a preeminent position, due to their potential applications as antitumorals, anticoagulants, antivirals, and immunomodulants. Many polysaccharides, produced by algae, crustaceans, bacteria, cyanobacteria, actinobacteria, and fungi, are of commercial interest, and many of them are already used in the food industry. These comprise alginates, carrageenans, fucoidans, chitin, xanthan, gellan, and pullulan. Current investigation is also focused on isolation, structural characterization and determination of the properties of new oligosaccharides and polysaccharides from seawater to be used as bio-based nanomaterials. Moreover, chemical or enzymatic modification of marine oligo- and polysaccharides in order to discover new biophysical and biochemical features, is a topic of increasing interest nowadays. As Guest Editor of this Special Issue of Marine Drugs, I invite you to provide recent advances in all the aspects of marine polysaccharides and oligosaccharides.

Prof. Maria Michela Corsaro
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Polysaccharides
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Chemical modification
  • Structural characterization
  • Glycobiology
  • Biological activity

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System for Ocular Administration
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(12), 370; doi:10.3390/md15120370
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
Pharmaceutical approaches based on nanotechnologies and the development of eye drops composed of the mucoadhesive polymers chitosan and hyaluronic acid are emerging strategies for the efficient treatment of ocular diseases. These innovative nanoparticulate systems aim to increase drugs’ bioavailability at the ocular surface.
[...] Read more.
Pharmaceutical approaches based on nanotechnologies and the development of eye drops composed of the mucoadhesive polymers chitosan and hyaluronic acid are emerging strategies for the efficient treatment of ocular diseases. These innovative nanoparticulate systems aim to increase drugs’ bioavailability at the ocular surface. For the successful development of these systems, the evaluation of mucoahesiveness (the interaction between the ocular delivery system and mucins present on the eye) is of utmost importance. In this context, the aim of the present work was to investigate the mucoadhesivity of a novel nanoparticle eye drop formulation containing an antibiotic (ceftazidime) intended to treat eye infections. Eye drop formulations comprised a polymer (hydroxypropyl) methyl cellulose (HPMC) 0.75% (w/v) in an isotonic solution incorporating chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP)-hyaluronic acid-based nanoparticles containing ceftazidime. The viscosity of the nanoparticles, and the gels incorporating the nanoparticles were characterized in contact with mucin at different mass ratios, allowing the calculation of the rheological synergism parameter (∆η). Results showed that at different nanoparticle eye formulation:mucin weight ratios, a minimum in viscosity occurred which resulted in a negative rheological synergism. Additionally, the results highlighted the mucoadhesivity of the novel ocular formulation and its ability to interact with the ocular surface, thus increasing the drug residence time in the eye. Moreover, the in vitro release and permeation studies showed a prolonged drug release profile from the chitosan/TPP-hyaluronic acid nanoparticles gel formulation. Furthermore, the gel formulations were not cytotoxic on ARPE-19 and HEK293T cell lines, evaluated by the metabolic and membrane integrity tests. The formulation was stable and the drug active, as shown by microbiological studies. In conclusion, chitosan/TPP-hyaluronic acid nanoparticle eye drop formulations are a promising platform for ocular drug delivery with enhanced mucoadhesive properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of Polysaccharides from Oysters (Crassostrea gigas) with Anti-Tumor Activities Using an Aqueous Two-Phase System
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(11), 338; doi:10.3390/md15110338
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
In this study, a simple aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was employed for concurrent purification of oyster polysaccharides. The chemical structure and anti-tumor activities of purified oyster polysaccharides (OP-1) were also investigated. Under optimal ATPS conditions, oyster polysaccharides can be partitioned in the bottom
[...] Read more.
In this study, a simple aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was employed for concurrent purification of oyster polysaccharides. The chemical structure and anti-tumor activities of purified oyster polysaccharides (OP-1) were also investigated. Under optimal ATPS conditions, oyster polysaccharides can be partitioned in the bottom phase with 67.02% extraction efficiency. The molecular weight of OP-1 was determined as 3480 Da. OP-1 is a (1→4)-α-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of glucose with a terminal-d-Glcp. The anti-tumor activity assay showed that OP-1 exhibited good activities, including promotion of splenocyte proliferation, IL-2 release, and inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation. Additionally, OP-1 had no in vivo toxicity. This finding suggests that ATPS is a much simpler and greener system, and it opens up new possibilities in the large-scale separation of active polysaccharides from oysters. OP-1 could be used by the health food and pharmaceutical therapies as potential anti-cancer adjuvants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Release Behavior and Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan/Alginate Blends with Aloe vera and Silver Nanoparticles
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(10), 328; doi:10.3390/md15100328
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Aloe vera is a perennial plant employed for medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes that is rich in amino acids, enzymes, vitamins and polysaccharides, which are responsible for its therapeutic properties. Incorporating these properties into a biopolymer film obtained from alginate and chitosan allowed
[...] Read more.
Aloe vera is a perennial plant employed for medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes that is rich in amino acids, enzymes, vitamins and polysaccharides, which are responsible for its therapeutic properties. Incorporating these properties into a biopolymer film obtained from alginate and chitosan allowed the development of a novel wound dressing with antibacterial capacity and healing effects to integrate the antibacterial capacity of silver nanoparticles with the healing and emollient properties of Aloe vera gel. Three alginate-chitosan matrices were obtained through blending methods using different proportions of alginate, chitosan, the Aloe vera (AV) gel and silver nanoparticles (AgNps), which were incorporated into the polymeric system through immersion methods. Physical, chemical and antibacterial characteristics were evaluated in each matrix. Interaction between alginate and chitosan was identified using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR), porosity was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling degree was calculated by difference in weight, Aloe vera gel release capacity was estimated by applying a drug model (Peppas) and finally antibacterial capacity was evaluated against S. Aureus and P. aeruginosa. Results show that alginate-chitosan (A (1:3 Chit 1/Alg 1); B (1:3 Chit 1.5/Alg 1) and C (3:1 Chit 1/Alg 1/B12)) matrices with Aloe vera (AV) gel and silver nanoparticles (AgNps) described here displayed antibacterial properties and absorption and Aloe vera release capacity making it a potential wound dressing for minor injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Evaluation of a Sodium Alginate-4-Aminosalicylic Acid Based Microporous Hydrogel for Potential Viscosupplementation for Joint Injuries and Arthritis-Induced Conditions
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 257; doi:10.3390/md15080257
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
A microporous hydrogel was developed using sodium alginate (alg) and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA). The synthesized hydrogel was characterized using various analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy
[...] Read more.
A microporous hydrogel was developed using sodium alginate (alg) and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA). The synthesized hydrogel was characterized using various analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additonal carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups of 4-ASA provided significant lubrication and stress-triggered sol-gel transition to the conjugated hydrogel. In addition, cytotoxicity analysis was undertaken on the conjugated hydrogel using human dermal fibroblast-adult (HDFa) cells, displaying non-toxic characteristics. Drug release profiles displaying 49.6% in the first 8 h and 97.5% within 72 h, similar to the native polymer (42.8% in first 8 h and 90.1% within 72 h). Under applied external stimuli, the modified hydrogel displayed significant gelling properties and structure deformation/recovery behaviour, confirmed using rheological evaluation (viscosity and thixotropic area of 8095.3 mPas and 26.23%, respectively). The modified hydrogel, thus, offers great possibility for designing smart synovial fluids as a biomimetic aqueous lubricant for joint-related injuries and arthritis-induced conditions. In addtion, the combination of thixotropy, non-toxicity, and drug release capabilities enables potential viscosupplementation for clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle The Positive Correlation of the Enhanced Immune Response to PCV2 Subunit Vaccine by Conjugation of Chitosan Oligosaccharide with the Deacetylation Degree
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 236; doi:10.3390/md15080236
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), the degraded products of chitosan, have been demonstrated to have versatile biological functions. In primary studies, it has displayed significant adjuvant effects when mixed with other vaccines. In this study, chitosan oligosaccharides with different deacetylation degrees were prepared and conjugated
[...] Read more.
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), the degraded products of chitosan, have been demonstrated to have versatile biological functions. In primary studies, it has displayed significant adjuvant effects when mixed with other vaccines. In this study, chitosan oligosaccharides with different deacetylation degrees were prepared and conjugated to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subunit vaccine to enhance its immunogenicity. The vaccine conjugates were designed by the covalent linkage of COSs to PCV2 molecules and administered to BALB/c mice three times at two-week intervals. The results indicate that, as compared to the PCV2 group, COS–PCV2 conjugates remarkably enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity against PCV2 by promoting lymphocyte proliferation and initiating a mixed T-helper 1 (Th1)/T-helper 2 (Th2) response, including raised levels of PCV2-specific antibodies and an increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Noticeably, with the increasing deacetylation degree, the stronger immune responses to PCV2 were observed in the groups with COS-PCV2 vaccination. In comparison with NACOS (chitin oligosaccharides)–PCV2 and LCOS (chitosan oligosaccharides with low deacetylation degree)–PCV2, HCOS (chitosan oligosaccharides with high deacetylation degree)–PCV2 showed the highest adjuvant effect, even comparable to that of PCV2/ISA206 (a commercialized adjuvant) group. In summary, COS conjugation might be a viable strategy to enhance the immune response to PCV2 subunit vaccine, and the adjuvant effect was positively correlated with the deacetylation degree of COS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle The Deep-Sea Polyextremophile Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21 Rough-Type LPS: Structure and Inhibitory Activity towards Toxic LPS
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(7), 201; doi:10.3390/md15070201
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
PDF Full-text (3105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The structural characterization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from extremophiles has important implications in several biomedical and therapeutic applications. The polyextremophile Gram-negative bacterium Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21, isolated from one of the most extreme habitats on our planet, the deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basin Thetis,
[...] Read more.
The structural characterization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from extremophiles has important implications in several biomedical and therapeutic applications. The polyextremophile Gram-negative bacterium Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21, isolated from one of the most extreme habitats on our planet, the deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basin Thetis, represents a fascinating microorganism to investigate in terms of its LPS component. Here we report the elucidation of the full structure of the R-type LPS isolated from H. lacunaris TB21 that was attained through a multi-technique approach comprising chemical analyses, NMR spectroscopy, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Furthermore, cellular immunology studies were executed on the pure R-LPS revealing a very interesting effect on human innate immunity as an inhibitor of the toxic Escherichia coli LPS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Induction of p53-Independent Apoptosis and G1 Cell Cycle Arrest by Fucoidan in HCT116 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(6), 154; doi:10.3390/md15060154
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is well known that fucoidan, a natural sulfated polysaccharide present in various brown algae, mediates anticancer effects through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Nevertheless, the role of tumor suppressor p53 in the mechanism action of fucoidan remains unclear. Here,
[...] Read more.
It is well known that fucoidan, a natural sulfated polysaccharide present in various brown algae, mediates anticancer effects through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Nevertheless, the role of tumor suppressor p53 in the mechanism action of fucoidan remains unclear. Here, we investigated the anticancer effect of fucoidan on two p53 isogenic HCT116 (p53+/+ and p53−/−) cell lines. Our results showed that inhibition of cell viability, induction of apoptosis and DNA damage by treatment with fucoidan were similar in two cell lines. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that fucoidan resulted in G1 arrest in the cell cycle progression, which correlated with the inhibition of phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and concomitant association of pRB with the transcription factor E2Fs. Furthermore, treatment with fucoidan obviously upregulated the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, such as p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1, which was paralleled by an enhanced binding with CDK2 and CDK4. These events also commonly occurred in both cell lines, suggesting that fucoidan triggered G1 arrest and apoptosis in HCT116 cells by a p53-independent mechanism. Thus, given that most tumors exhibit functional p53 inactivation, fucoidan could be a possible therapeutic option for cancer treatment regardless of the p53 status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Zhang, G.; Cheng, G.; Jia, P.; Jiao, S.; Feng, C.; Hu, T.; Liu, H.; Du, Y. The Positive Correlation of the Enhanced Immune Response to PCV2 Subunit Vaccine by Conjugation of Chitosan Oligosaccharide with the Deacetylation Degree. Marine Drugs 2017, 15, 236
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(9), 292; doi:10.3390/md15090292
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
The authors wish to correct Figure 1 in this paper [1] to be as follows:[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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