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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 237; doi:10.3390/md15080237

Spirulina platensis Improves Mitochondrial Function Impaired by Elevated Oxidative Stress in Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (ASCs) and Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs), and Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) Horses

1
Department of Experimental Biology, The Faculty of Biology and Animal Science, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 27b Norwida Str., 50-375 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Wroclaw Research Centre EIT+, Stablowicka Str. 147, 54-066 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract

Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is a steadily growing life-threatening endocrine disorder linked to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation. Inflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue constitutes the direct tissue milieu for various cell populations, including adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs), widely considered as a potential therapeutic cell source in the course of the treatment of metabolic disorders. Moreover, elevated oxidative stress induces inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)—the first-line cells exposed to dietary compounds. In the conducted research, we showed that in vitro application of Spirulina platensis contributes to the restoration of ASCs’ and IECs’ morphology and function through the reduction of cellular oxidative stress and inflammation. Enhanced viability, suppressed senescence, and improved proliferation of ASCs and IECs isolated from metabolic syndrome-affected individuals were evident following exposition to Spirulina. A protective effect of the investigated extract against mitochondrial dysfunction and degeneration was also observed. Moreover, our data demonstrate that Spirulina extract effectively suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. In vivo studies showed that horses fed with a diet based on Spirulina platensis supplementation lost weight and their insulin sensitivity improved. Thus, our results indicate the engagement of Spirulina platensis nourishing as an interesting alternative approach for supporting the conventional treatment of equine metabolic syndrome. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spirulina platensis; equine metabolic syndrome; mesenchymal stromal cells; intestinal epithelial cells; oxidative stress; inflammation; insulin resistance Spirulina platensis; equine metabolic syndrome; mesenchymal stromal cells; intestinal epithelial cells; oxidative stress; inflammation; insulin resistance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nawrocka, D.; Kornicka, K.; Śmieszek, A.; Marycz, K. Spirulina platensis Improves Mitochondrial Function Impaired by Elevated Oxidative Stress in Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (ASCs) and Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs), and Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) Horses. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 237.

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