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Special Issue "Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Brijesh Tiwari

Department of Food Biosciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland
Fax: +353 (0) 1 8059550

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

Bioactive compounds are a heterogeneous group of substances found in all foods, thus constituting an important component of the human diet. Consumption of food rich in bioactives has been reported to protect against some degenerative diseases that affect humans. Bioactive carbohydrates and peptides have attracted considerable interest among researchers and consumers due to their biofunctional and technofunctional properties. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive carbohydrates and peptides from new matrices (e.g. marine bioresources), underutilized plants and food processing waste, provide an opportunity to source bioactive carbohydrates and peptides as a functional ingredient.

This Special Issue will focus on various aspects of extraction, isolation, characterization and application of bioactive carbohydrates and peptides from various sources, including novel and existing sources. This Special Issue therefore invites original, unpublished research and review contributions on:

  1. Biochemical and biofunctional properties of bioactive carbohydrates and peptides.
  2. Impact of processing and extraction technologies on properties.
  3. Recent advances in analytical and extraction techniques for bioactive carbohydrates and peptides.
  4. Novel industrial and nutraceutical applications of bioactive carbohydrates and peptides.
  5. High throughput screening bioactive carbohydrates and peptides from novel marine bioresources, underutilized plants and food processing waste.
  6. Structure—functional relationship, biochemical pathway and degradation mechanisms.

Dr. Brijesh Tiwari
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • bioactive carbohydrates
  • bioactive peptides
  • marine bio-resources
  • extraction technologies
  • functional properties and characterization

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Heavy Metal Complexation of Thiol-Containing Peptides from Soy Glycinin Hydrolysates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 8040-8058; doi:10.3390/ijms16048040
Received: 3 March 2015 / Revised: 3 April 2015 / Accepted: 7 April 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many thiol-containing molecules show heavy metal complexation ability and are used as antidotes. In this study, the potential function associated with thiol-containing peptides (TCPs) from soy protein hydrolysates as natural detoxicants for heavy metals is reported. TCPs enriched by Thiopropyl-Sepharose 6B covalent [...] Read more.
Many thiol-containing molecules show heavy metal complexation ability and are used as antidotes. In this study, the potential function associated with thiol-containing peptides (TCPs) from soy protein hydrolysates as natural detoxicants for heavy metals is reported. TCPs enriched by Thiopropyl-Sepharose 6B covalent chromatography had different molecular weight distributions as well as different numbers of proton dissociable groups, depending on the proteases and degree of hydrolysis. The major contribution of sulfhydryl groups was confirmed by the largest pH decrease between 8.0 and 8.5 of the pH titration curves. The complexation of TCPs with heavy metals was evaluated by stability constants (βn) of TCP-metal complexes whose stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 (ML) and 1:2 (ML2). TCPs from degree of hydrolysis of 25% hydrolysates gave high affinities towards Hg2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ (giving similar or even bigger lgβ values than that of glutathione). A significantly positive correlation was found between the logarithm of stability constants for ML2 (lgβ2) and the sulfhydryl group content. Molecular weight distribution of TCPs affected the complexation with Pb2+ notably more than Hg2+ and Cd2+. These results suggest that soy TCPs have the potential to be used in the formulation of functional foods to counteract heavy metal accumulation in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Antihyperglycemic Activity of a Polysaccharide from Dioscorea opposita Thunb Roots
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 6391-6401; doi:10.3390/ijms16036391
Received: 29 January 2015 / Revised: 1 March 2015 / Accepted: 16 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A polysaccharide DOTP-80 from Dioscorea opposita Thunb was obtained by using the method of acid water-extraction and ethanol-precipitation. After being purified by chromatography, the structure characteristics of DOTP-80 were established. Based on the calibration curve obtained with standard dextrans, the molecular weight [...] Read more.
A polysaccharide DOTP-80 from Dioscorea opposita Thunb was obtained by using the method of acid water-extraction and ethanol-precipitation. After being purified by chromatography, the structure characteristics of DOTP-80 were established. Based on the calibration curve obtained with standard dextrans, the molecular weight of the polysaccharide fraction DOTP-80 was calculated to be 123 kDa. The results of Infrared spectrum (FT-IR) indicated that the polysaccharide contained the α-configuration of sugar units. GC-MS analysis revealed that DOTP-80 was mainly composed of mannose and glucose. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats and mice models were developed to evaluate the in vivo hypoglycemic activity of the polysaccharide. The results indicated that a high dose DOTP-80 (400 mg/kg) had strong hypoglycemic activity. Moreover, DOTP-80 could increase the level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD) activity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice and stimulate an increase in glucose disposal in diabetic rats. Therefore, the polysaccharide DOTP-80 should be evaluated as a candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides)
Open AccessArticle Anti-TMV Activity of Malformin A1, a Cyclic Penta-Peptide Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus tubingensis FJBJ11
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 5750-5761; doi:10.3390/ijms16035750
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 7 March 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant-associated microorganisms are known to produce a variety of metabolites with novel structures and interesting biological activities. An endophytic fungus FJBJ11, isolated from the plant tissue of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. (Simaroubaceae), was proven to be significantly effective in producing metabolites with [...] Read more.
Plant-associated microorganisms are known to produce a variety of metabolites with novel structures and interesting biological activities. An endophytic fungus FJBJ11, isolated from the plant tissue of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. (Simaroubaceae), was proven to be significantly effective in producing metabolites with anti-Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activities. The isolate was identified as Aspergillus tubingensis FJBJ11 based on morphological characteristics and ITS sequence. Bioassay-guided isolation led to the identification of a cycli penta-peptide, malformin A1, along with two cyclic dipeptides, cyclo (Gly-l-Pro) and cyclo (Ala-Leu). Malformin A1 showed potent inhibitory effect against the infection and replication of TMV with IC50 values of 19.7 and 45.4 μg·mL−1, as tested using local lesion assay and leaf-disc method, respectively. The results indicated the potential use of malformin A1 as a leading compound or a promising candidate of new viricide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides)
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Open AccessArticle Role of Aeromonas hydrophila Flagella Glycosylation in Adhesion to Hep-2 Cells, Biofilm Formation and Immune Stimulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 21935-21946; doi:10.3390/ijms151221935
Received: 4 September 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 21 November 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polar flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-3 (serotype O34) were found to be O-glycosylated with a heterogeneous heptasaccharide glycan. Two mutants with altered (light and strong) polar flagella glycosylation still able to produce flagella were previously obtained, as well as [...] Read more.
Polar flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-3 (serotype O34) were found to be O-glycosylated with a heterogeneous heptasaccharide glycan. Two mutants with altered (light and strong) polar flagella glycosylation still able to produce flagella were previously obtained, as well as mutants lacking the O34-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but with unaltered polar flagella glycosylation. We compared these mutants, altogether with the wild type strain, in different studies to conclude that polar flagella glycosylation is extremely important for A. hydrophila adhesion to Hep-2 cells and biofilm formation. Furthermore, the polar flagella glycosylation is an important factor for the immune stimulation of IL-8 production via toll receptor 5 (TLR5). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 19307-19318; doi:10.3390/ijms151019307
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 27 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, [...] Read more.
The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 22485-22508; doi:10.3390/ijms160922485
Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 24 August 2015 / Accepted: 1 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (899 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to [...] Read more.
Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides)
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Open AccessReview The Effects of Marine Carbohydrates and Glycosylated Compounds on Human Health
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 6018-6056; doi:10.3390/ijms16036018
Received: 28 November 2014 / Revised: 5 March 2015 / Accepted: 6 March 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine organisms have been recognized as a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Recently, marine-derived carbohydrates, including polysaccharides and low molecular weight glycosylated oligosaccharides, have attracted much attention because of their numerous health benefits. Moreover, several studies have [...] Read more.
Marine organisms have been recognized as a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Recently, marine-derived carbohydrates, including polysaccharides and low molecular weight glycosylated oligosaccharides, have attracted much attention because of their numerous health benefits. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine carbohydrates exhibit various biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-infection, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic effects. The present review discusses the potential industrial applications of bioactive marine carbohydrates for health maintenance and disease prevention. Furthermore, the use of marine carbohydrates in food, cosmetics, agriculture, and environmental protection is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides)
Open AccessReview Insight into the Molecular and Functional Diversity of Cnidarian Neuropeptides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 2610-2625; doi:10.3390/ijms16022610
Received: 22 December 2014 / Revised: 6 January 2015 / Accepted: 15 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (952 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa [...] Read more.
Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). Neuropeptides have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in cnidarians. For example, from the cnidarian Hydra, a key model system for studying the peptides involved in developmental and physiological processes, we identified a wide variety of novel neuropeptides from Hydra magnipapillata (the Hydra Peptide Project). Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and induce contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. In this review, we describe FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide. Several hundred FLPs have been isolated from invertebrate animals such as cnidarians. GLWamide-family peptides function as signaling molecules in muscle contraction, metamorphosis, and settlement in cnidarians. Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide enhances neuronal differentiation in Hydra. Recently, GLWamide-family peptides and Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide were shown to trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. These findings suggest the importance of these neuropeptides in both developmental and physiological processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides)
Open AccessReview Fatal Attraction: How Bacterial Adhesins Affect Host Signaling and What We Can Learn from Them
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 2626-2640; doi:10.3390/ijms16022626
Received: 27 November 2014 / Revised: 25 December 2014 / Accepted: 19 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of bacterial species to colonize and infect host organisms is critically dependent upon their capacity to adhere to cellular surfaces of the host. Adherence to cell surfaces is known to be essential for the activation and delivery of certain virulence [...] Read more.
The ability of bacterial species to colonize and infect host organisms is critically dependent upon their capacity to adhere to cellular surfaces of the host. Adherence to cell surfaces is known to be essential for the activation and delivery of certain virulence factors, but can also directly affect host cell signaling to aid bacterial spread and survival. In this review we will discuss the recent advances in the field of bacterial adhesion, how we are beginning to unravel the effects adhesins have on host cell signaling, and how these changes aid the bacteria in terms of their survival and evasion of immune responses. Finally, we will highlight how the exploitation of bacterial adhesins may provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of a wide range of bacterial infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides)
Open AccessReview Cellular Disulfide Bond Formation in Bioactive Peptides and Proteins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1791-1805; doi:10.3390/ijms16011791
Received: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioactive peptides play important roles in metabolic regulation and modulation and many are used as therapeutics. These peptides often possess disulfide bonds, which are important for their structure, function and stability. A systematic network of enzymes—a disulfide bond generating enzyme, a disulfide [...] Read more.
Bioactive peptides play important roles in metabolic regulation and modulation and many are used as therapeutics. These peptides often possess disulfide bonds, which are important for their structure, function and stability. A systematic network of enzymes—a disulfide bond generating enzyme, a disulfide bond donor enzyme and a redox cofactor—that function inside the cell dictates the formation and maintenance of disulfide bonds. The main pathways that catalyze disulfide bond formation in peptides and proteins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are remarkably similar and share several mechanistic features. This review summarizes the formation of disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins by cellular and recombinant machinery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides)
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