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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2220-2238; doi:10.3390/ijms16012220

De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Narrow-Ridged Finless Porpoise Renal Transcriptome and Identification of Candidate Genes Involved in Osmoregulation

1
The Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kotb Abdelmohsen
Received: 20 October 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1770 KB, uploaded 20 January 2015]   |  

Abstract

During the evolutionary transition from land to water, cetaceans have undergone numerous critical challenges, with osmoregulation being the major one. Two subspecies of the narrow-ridged finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis), the freshwater Yangtze finless porpoise (N. a. asiaeorientalis, NAA) and the marine East Asian finless porpoise (N. a. sunameri, NAS), provide excellent subjects to understand the genetic basis of osmoregulatory divergence between freshwater and marine mammals. The kidney plays an important and well-established role in osmoregulation in marine mammals and thus, herein, we utilized RNA-seq to characterize the renal transcriptome and preliminarily analyze the divergence between the NAA and the NAS. Approximately 48.98 million clean reads from NAS and 49.40 million clean reads from NAA were obtained by RNA-Seq. And 73,449 (NAS) and 68,073 (NAA) unigenes were assembled. Among these annotations, 22,231 (NAS) and 21,849 (NAA) unigenes were annotated against the NCBI nr protein database. The ion channel complex GO term and four pathways were detected as relevant to osmoregulation by GO and KEGG pathway classification of these annotated unigenes. Although the endangered status of the study species prevented analysis of biological replicates, we identified nine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that may be vital in the osmoregulation of the narrow-ridged finless porpoise and worthwhile for future studies. Of these DEGs, the differential expression and distribution of the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in the collecting duct were verified using immunohistochemical experiments. Together, this work is the first report of renal transcriptome sequencing in cetaceans, and it will provide a valuable resource for future molecular genetics studies on cetacean osmoregulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: renal transcriptome; RNA-seq; the narrow-ridged finless porpoise; osmoregulation; AQP2 renal transcriptome; RNA-seq; the narrow-ridged finless porpoise; osmoregulation; AQP2
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ruan, R.; Guo, A.-H.; Hao, Y.-J.; Zheng, J.-S.; Wang, D. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Narrow-Ridged Finless Porpoise Renal Transcriptome and Identification of Candidate Genes Involved in Osmoregulation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 2220-2238.

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