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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1806-1820; doi:10.3390/ijms16011806

Specificity Protein 1 Regulates Gene Expression Related to Fatty Acid Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Agriculture, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
Guangxi Institute of Animal Husbandry, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning 530000, China
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mark L. Richter
Received: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1626 KB, uploaded 14 January 2015]   |  


Specificity protein 1 (SP1) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that plays an important role in controlling gene expression. Although important in mediating the function of various hormones, the role of SP1 in regulating milk fat formation remains unknown. To investigate the sequence and expression information, as well as its role in modulating lipid metabolism, we cloned SP1 gene from mammary gland of Xinong Saanen dairy goat. The full-length cDNA of the SP1 gene is 4376 bp including 103 bp of 5'UTR, 2358 bp of ORF (HM_236311) and 1915 bp of 3'UTR, which is predicted to encode a 786 amino acids polypeptide. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that goat SP1 has the closest relationship with sheep, followed by bovines (bos taurus, odobenus and ceratotherium), pig, primates (pongo, gorilla, macaca and papio) and murine (rattus and mus), while the furthest relationship was with canis and otolemur. Expression was predominant in the lungs, small intestine, muscle, spleen, mammary gland and subcutaneous fat. There were no significant expression level differences between the mammary gland tissues collected at lactation and dry-off period. Overexpression of SP1 in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) led to higher mRNA expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and lower liver X receptor α (LXRα) mRNA level, both of which were crucial in regulating fatty acid metabolism, and correspondingly altered the expression of their downstream genes in GMECs. These results were further enhanced by the silencing of SP1. These findings suggest that SP1 may play an important role in fatty acid metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy goat; mammary epithelial cells; specificity protein 1; fatty acid metabolism dairy goat; mammary epithelial cells; specificity protein 1; fatty acid metabolism

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhu, J.; Sun, Y.; Luo, J.; Wu, M.; Li, J.; Cao, Y. Specificity Protein 1 Regulates Gene Expression Related to Fatty Acid Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 1806-1820.

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