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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17048-17064; doi:10.3390/ijms131217048

Anti-Legionella dumoffii Activity of Galleria mellonella Defensin and Apolipophorin III

1,* , 2, 3
Received: 24 September 2012 / Revised: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences 2012)
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The gram-negative bacterium Legionella dumoffii is, beside Legionella pneumophila, an etiological agent of Legionnaires’ disease, an atypical form of pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of Galleria mellonella defense polypeptides against L. dumoffii. The extract of immune hemolymph, containing a mixture of defense peptides and proteins, exhibited a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on L. dumoffii. The bacterium appeared sensitive to a main component of the hemolymph extract, apolipophorin III, as well as to a defense peptide, Galleria defensin, used at the concentrations 0.4 mg/mL and 40 μg/mL, respectively. L. dumoffii cells cultured in the presence of choline were more susceptible to both defense factors analyzed. A transmission electron microscopy study of bacterial cells demonstrated that Galleria defensin and apolipophorin III induced irreversible cell wall damage and strong intracellular alterations, i.e., increased vacuolization, cytoplasm condensation and the appearance of electron-white spaces in electron micrographs. Our findings suggest that insects, such as G. mellonella, with their great diversity of antimicrobial factors, can serve as a rich source of compounds for the testing of Legionella susceptibility to defense-related peptides and proteins.
Keywords: phosphatidylcholine; Legionella; Galleria mellonella; apolipophorin III; Galleria defensin phosphatidylcholine; Legionella; Galleria mellonella; apolipophorin III; Galleria defensin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Palusińska-Szysz, M.; Zdybicka-Barabas, A.; Pawlikowska-Pawlęga, B.; Mak, P.; Cytryńska, M. Anti-Legionella dumoffii Activity of Galleria mellonella Defensin and Apolipophorin III. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 17048-17064.

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