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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17077-17103; doi:10.3390/ijms131217077
Review

Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores

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1
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2
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 and
1,*
1 Department of Population Biology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, 1098 XH Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2 Department of Plant Breeding, Subtropical and Mediterranean Horticulture Institute "La Mayora" (IHSM), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Experimental Station "La Mayora", E-29750, Algarrobo-Costa, Málaga, Spain 3 Department of Plant Physiology, Swammerdam Institute of Life Sciences, 1098 XH, Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 November 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)

Abstract

Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests.
Keywords: glandular trichome; plant-herbivore interactions; pathogen; Solanaceae; pest resistance; plant defense; leaf hair; tomato; plant breeding; genetic engineering glandular trichome; plant-herbivore interactions; pathogen; Solanaceae; pest resistance; plant defense; leaf hair; tomato; plant breeding; genetic engineering
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Glas, J.J.; Schimmel, B.C.J.; Alba, J.M.; Escobar-Bravo, R.; Schuurink, R.C.; Kant, M.R. Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 17077-17103.

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