Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16916-16928; doi:10.3390/ijms131216916
Article

Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient

Received: 3 October 2012; in revised form: 9 November 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity level (ab. g), 1 g, 1.56 g and 1.96 g) in a superconducting magnet was compared with that in the absence of the magnetic field. The results showed that the evaporation of water was indeed faster in the magnetic field than in the absence of the magnetic field. Furthermore, the amount of water evaporation differed depending on the position of the sample within the magnetic field. In particular, the evaporation at 0 g was clearly faster than that at other positions. The results are discussed from the point of view of the evaporation surface area of the water/air interface and the convection induced by the magnetization force due to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility of water vapor and the surrounding air.
Keywords: molecular water; evaporation; magnetic field; field gradient; protein crystallization; hydrogen bonds; van der Waals force
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, Y.-Z.; Yin, D.-C.; Cao, H.-L.; Shi, J.-Y.; Zhang, C.-Y.; Liu, Y.-M.; Huang, H.-H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Guo, W.-H.; Qian, A.-R.; Shang, P. Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 16916-16928.

AMA Style

Guo Y-Z, Yin D-C, Cao H-L, Shi J-Y, Zhang C-Y, Liu Y-M, Huang H-H, Liu Y, Wang Y, Guo W-H, Qian A-R, Shang P. Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(12):16916-16928.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guo, Yun-Zhu; Yin, Da-Chuan; Cao, Hui-Ling; Shi, Jian-Yu; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Liu, Yong-Ming; Huang, Huan-Huan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Guo, Wei-Hong; Qian, Ai-Rong; Shang, Peng. 2012. "Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 12: 16916-16928.

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