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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2010), Pages 4175-4781

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Open AccessArticle Thermal Denaturation and Aggregation of Myosin Subfragment 1 Isoforms with Different Essential Light Chains
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4194-4226; doi:10.3390/ijms11114194
Received: 30 August 2010 / Revised: 8 October 2010 / Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 27 October 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We compared thermally induced denaturation and aggregation of two isoforms of the isolated myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) containing different “essential” (or “alkali”) light chains, A1 or A2. We applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate the domain structure of these [...] Read more.
We compared thermally induced denaturation and aggregation of two isoforms of the isolated myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) containing different “essential” (or “alkali”) light chains, A1 or A2. We applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate the domain structure of these two S1 isoforms. For this purpose, a special calorimetric approach was developed to analyze the DSC profiles of irreversibly denaturing multidomain proteins. Using this approach, we revealed two calorimetric domains in  the S1 molecule, the more thermostable domain denaturing in two steps. Comparing the DSC data with temperature dependences of intrinsic fluorescence parameters and S1 ATPase inactivation, we have identified these two calorimetric domains as motor domain and regulatory domain of the myosin head, the motor domain being more thermostable. Some difference between the two S1 isoforms was only revealed by DSC in thermal denaturation of the regulatory domain. We also applied dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze the aggregation of S1 isoforms induced by their thermal denaturation. We have found no appreciable difference between these S1 isoforms in their aggregation properties under ionic strength conditions close to those in the muscle fiber (in the presence of 100 mM KCl). Under these conditions kinetics of this process was independent of protein concentration, and the aggregation rate was limited by irreversible denaturation of the S1 motor domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle The Bondons: The Quantum Particles of the Chemical Bond
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4227-4256; doi:10.3390/ijms11114227
Received: 23 August 2010 / Revised: 11 October 2010 / Accepted: 21 October 2010 / Published: 28 October 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By employing the combined Bohmian quantum formalism with the U(1) and SU(2) gauge transformations of the non-relativistic wave-function and the relativistic spinor, within the Schrödinger and Dirac quantum pictures of electron motions, the existence of the chemical field is revealed along the [...] Read more.
By employing the combined Bohmian quantum formalism with the U(1) and SU(2) gauge transformations of the non-relativistic wave-function and the relativistic spinor, within the Schrödinger and Dirac quantum pictures of electron motions, the existence of the chemical field is revealed along the associate bondon particle  characterized by its mass (mΒ), velocity (vΒ), charge (eΒ), and life-time (tΒ). This is quantized either in ground or excited states of the chemical bond in terms of reduced Planck constant ħ, the bond energy Ebond and length Xbond, respectively. The mass-velocity-charge-time quaternion properties of bondons’ particles were used in discussing various paradigmatic types of chemical bond towards assessing their covalent, multiple bonding, metallic and ionic features. The bondonic picture was completed by discussing the relativistic charge and life-time (the actual zitterbewegung) problem, i.e., showing that the bondon equals the benchmark electronic charge through moving with almost light velocity. It carries negligible, although non-zero, mass in special bonding conditions and towards observable femtosecond life-time as the bonding length increases in the nanosystems and bonding energy decreases according with the bonding length-energy relationship Ebond[kcal/mol]*Xbond[A]=182019, providing this way the predictive framework in which the particle may be observed. Finally, its role in establishing the virtual states in Raman scattering was also established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atoms in Molecules and in Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle A Molecular–Structure Hypothesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4267-4284; doi:10.3390/ijms11114267
Received: 28 September 2010 / Revised: 25 October 2010 / Accepted: 25 October 2010 / Published: 1 November 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The self-similar symmetry that occurs between atomic nuclei, biological growth structures, the solar system, globular clusters and spiral galaxies suggests that a similar pattern should characterize atomic and molecular structures. This possibility is explored in terms of the current molecular structure-hypothesis and [...] Read more.
The self-similar symmetry that occurs between atomic nuclei, biological growth structures, the solar system, globular clusters and spiral galaxies suggests that a similar pattern should characterize atomic and molecular structures. This possibility is explored in terms of the current molecular structure-hypothesis and its extension into four-dimensional space-time. It is concluded that a quantum molecule only has structure in four dimensions and that classical (Newtonian) structure, which occurs in three dimensions, cannot be simulated by quantum-chemical computation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Symmetry)
Open AccessArticle Palm Date Fibers: Analysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4285-4296; doi:10.3390/ijms11114285
Received: 20 September 2010 / Revised: 25 October 2010 / Accepted: 26 October 2010 / Published: 1 November 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled [...] Read more.
Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin) settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin) formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4297-4308; doi:10.3390/ijms11114297
Received: 18 August 2010 / Revised: 21 October 2010 / Accepted: 21 October 2010 / Published: 1 November 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain), with an optimum condition of: (1) ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2) concentration of substrate, 4%; (3) reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4) pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01) under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Relationships among the A Genomes of Triticum L. Species as Evidenced by SSR Markers, in Iran
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4309-4325; doi:10.3390/ijms11114309
Received: 7 September 2010 / Revised: 6 October 2010 / Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 2 November 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationships among 55 wheat accessions (47 accessions collected from Iran and eight accessions provided by the Institute of Plant Biology of the University of Zurich, Switzerland) belonging to eight species carrying A genome (Triticum monococcum L., T. boeoticum Boiss., T. urartu Tumanian ex Gandilyan, T. durum Desf., T. turgidum L., T. dicoccum Schrank ex Schübler, T. dicoccoides (Körn. ex Asch. & Graebner) Schweinf. and T. aestivum L.) were evaluated using 31 A genome specific microsatellite markers. A high level of polymorphism was observed among the accessions studied (PIC = 0.77). The highest gene diversity was revealed among T. durum genotypes, while the lowest genetic variation was found in T. dicoccoides accessions. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a significant genetic variance (75.56%) among these accessions, representing a high intra-specific genetic diversity within Triticum taxa in Iran. However, such a variance was not observed among their ploidy levels. Based on the genetic similarity analysis, the accessions collected from Iran were divided into two main groups: diploids and polyploids. The genetic similarity among the diploid and polyploid species was 0.85 and 0.89 respectively. There were no significant differences in A genome diversity from different geographic regions. Based on the genetic diversity analyses, we consider there is value in a greater sampling of each species in Iran to discover useful genes for breeding purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diagnostics)
Open AccessArticle 3D-QSAR and Molecular Docking Studies on Derivatives of MK-0457, GSK1070916 and SNS-314 as Inhibitors against Aurora B Kinase
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4326-4347; doi:10.3390/ijms11114326
Received: 7 September 2010 / Revised: 21 September 2010 / Accepted: 29 September 2010 / Published: 2 November 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Development of anticancer drugs targeting Aurora B, an important member of the serine/threonine kinases family, has been extensively focused on in recent years. In this work, by applying an integrated computational method, including comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative molecular similarity indices [...] Read more.
Development of anticancer drugs targeting Aurora B, an important member of the serine/threonine kinases family, has been extensively focused on in recent years. In this work, by applying an integrated computational method, including comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), homology modeling and molecular docking, we investigated the structural determinants of Aurora B inhibitors based on three different series of derivatives of 108 molecules. The resultant optimum 3D-QSAR models exhibited (q2 = 0.605, r2pred = 0.826), (q2 = 0.52, r2pred = 0.798) and (q2 = 0.582, r2pred = 0.971) for MK-0457, GSK1070916 and SNS-314 classes, respectively, and the 3D contour maps generated from these models were analyzed individually. The contour map analysis for the MK-0457 model revealed the relative importance of steric and electrostatic effects for Aurora B inhibition, whereas, the electronegative groups with hydrogen bond donating capacity showed a great impact on the inhibitory activity for the derivatives of GSK1070916. Additionally, the predictive model of the SNS-314 class revealed the great importance of hydrophobic favorable contour, since hydrophobic favorable substituents added to this region bind to a deep and narrow hydrophobic pocket composed of residues that are hydrophobic in nature and thus enhanced the inhibitory activity. Moreover, based on the docking study, a further comparison of the binding modes was accomplished to identify a set of critical residues that play a key role in stabilizing the drug-target interactions. Overall, the high level of consistency between the 3D contour maps and the topographical features of binding sites led to our identification of several key structural requirements for more potency inhibitors. Taken together, the results will serve as a basis for future drug development of inhibitors against Aurora B kinase for various tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in QSAR/QSPR Theory)
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Open AccessArticle Myricetin Protects Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis via Regulation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK Signaling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4348-4360; doi:10.3390/ijms11114348
Received: 13 September 2010 / Revised: 25 September 2010 / Accepted: 29 October 2010 / Published: 2 November 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Recently, we demonstrated that myricetin exhibits cytoprotective effects against H2O2-induced cell damage via its antioxidant properties. In the present study, myricetin was found to inhibit H2O2-induced apoptosis in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells, [...] Read more.
Recently, we demonstrated that myricetin exhibits cytoprotective effects against H2O2-induced cell damage via its antioxidant properties. In the present study, myricetin was found to inhibit H2O2-induced apoptosis in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells, as shown by decreased apoptotic bodies, nuclear fragmentation, sub-G1 cell population, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Dym), which are increased in H2O2-treated cells. Western blot data showed that in H2O2-treated cells, myricetin increased the level of Bcl-2, which is an anti-apoptotic factor, and decreased the levels of Bax, active caspase-9 and -3, which are pro-apoptotic factors. And myricetin inhibited release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol in H2O2-treated cells. Myricetin-induced survival correlated with Akt activity, and the rescue of cells by myricetin treatment against H2O2-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the specific PI3K (phosphoinositol-3-kinase) inhibitor. Myricetin-mediated survival also inhibited the activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which are members of MAPK. Our studies suggest that myricetin prevents oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via regulation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hazardous Apoptotic Effects of 2-Bromopropane on Maturation of Mouse Oocytes, Fertilization, and Fetal Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4361-4380; doi:10.3390/ijms11114361
Received: 8 October 2010 / Revised: 1 November 2010 / Accepted: 1 November 2010 / Published: 3 November 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
2-Bromopropane (2-BP) is used as an alternative to ozone-depleting cleaning solvents. Previously, we reported that 2-BP has cytotoxic effects on mouse blastocysts and is associated with defects in subsequent development. Here, we further investigate the effects of 2-BP on oocyte maturation and [...] Read more.
2-Bromopropane (2-BP) is used as an alternative to ozone-depleting cleaning solvents. Previously, we reported that 2-BP has cytotoxic effects on mouse blastocysts and is associated with defects in subsequent development. Here, we further investigate the effects of 2-BP on oocyte maturation and subsequent pre- and post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, 2-BP induced a significant reduction in the rates of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and in vitro embryonic development. Treatment of oocytes with 2-BP during in vitro maturation (IVM) resulted in increased resorption of postimplantation embryos and decreased fetal weights. Experiments with a mouse model disclosed that consumption of drinking water containing 20 μM 2-BP led to decreased oocyte maturation in vivo and fertilization in vitro, as well as impairment of early embryonic development. Interestingly, pretreatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor effectively prevented 2-BP-triggered hazardous effects, suggesting that embryonic impairment by 2-BP occurs via a caspase-dependent apoptotic process. A study using embryonic stem cells as the assay model conclusively demonstrated that 2-BP induces cell death processes through apoptosis and not necrosis, and inhibits early embryo development in mouse embryonic stem cells. These results collectively confirm the hazardous effects of 2-BP on embryos derived from pretreated oocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Open AccessArticle Ionocovalency and Applications 1. Ionocovalency Model and Orbital Hybrid Scales
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4381-4406; doi:10.3390/ijms11114381
Received: 27 September 2010 / Revised: 19 October 2010 / Accepted: 21 October 2010 / Published: 3 November 2010
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Abstract
Ionocovalency (IC), a quantitative dual nature of the atom, is defined and correlated with quantum-mechanical potential to describe quantitatively the dual properties of the bond. Orbiotal hybrid IC model scale, IC, and IC electronegativity scale, XIC, are [...] Read more.
Ionocovalency (IC), a quantitative dual nature of the atom, is defined and correlated with quantum-mechanical potential to describe quantitatively the dual properties of the bond. Orbiotal hybrid IC model scale, IC, and IC electronegativity scale, XIC, are proposed, wherein the ionicity and the covalent radius are determined by spectroscopy. Being composed of the ionic function I and the covalent function C, the model describes quantitatively the dual properties of bond strengths, charge density and ionic potential. Based on the atomic electron configuration and the various quantum-mechanical built-up dual parameters, the model formed a Dual Method of the multiple-functional prediction, which has much more versatile and exceptional applications than traditional electronegativity scales and molecular properties. Hydrogen has unconventional values of IC and XIC, lower than that of boron. The IC model can agree fairly well with the data of bond properties and satisfactorily explain chemical observations of elements throughout the Periodic Table. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Involvement of Glutamate Transporter-1 in Neuroprotection against Global Brain Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Induced by Postconditioning in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4407-4416; doi:10.3390/ijms11114407
Received: 17 September 2010 / Revised: 1 October 2010 / Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 3 November 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ischemic postconditioning refers to several transient reperfusion and ischemia cycles after an ischemic event and before a long duration of reperfusion. The procedure produces neuroprotective effects. The mechanisms underlying these neuroprotective effects are poorly understood. In this study, we found that most [...] Read more.
Ischemic postconditioning refers to several transient reperfusion and ischemia cycles after an ischemic event and before a long duration of reperfusion. The procedure produces neuroprotective effects. The mechanisms underlying these neuroprotective effects are poorly understood. In this study, we found that most neurons in the CA1 region died after 10 minutes of ischemia and is followed by 72 hours of reperfusion. However, brain ischemic postconditioning (six cycles of 10 s/10 s reperfusion/re-occlusion) significantly reduced neuronal death. Significant up-regulation of Glutamate transporter-1 was found after 3, 6, 24, 72 hours of reperfusion. The present study showed that ischemic postconditioning decreases cell death and that upregulation of GLT-1 expression may play an important role on this effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4417-4425; doi:10.3390/ijms11114417
Received: 14 October 2010 / Revised: 30 October 2010 / Accepted: 1 November 2010 / Published: 4 November 2010
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the [...] Read more.
The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34% and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1% of 0.5% SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosurfactants)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Gadolinium Chloride on Liver Regeneration Following Thioacetamide-Induced Necrosis in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4426-4440; doi:10.3390/ijms11114426
Received: 1 October 2010 / Revised: 19 October 2010 / Accepted: 19 October 2010 / Published: 4 November 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gadolinium chloride (GD) attenuates drug-induced hepatotoxicity by selectively inactivating Kupffer cells. The effect of GD was studied in reference to postnecrotic liver regeneration induced in rats by thioacetamide (TA). Rats, intravenously pretreated with a single dose of GD (0.1 mmol/Kg), were intraperitoneally [...] Read more.
Gadolinium chloride (GD) attenuates drug-induced hepatotoxicity by selectively inactivating Kupffer cells. The effect of GD was studied in reference to postnecrotic liver regeneration induced in rats by thioacetamide (TA). Rats, intravenously pretreated with a single dose of GD (0.1 mmol/Kg), were intraperitoneally injected with TA (6.6 mmol/Kg). Hepatocytes were isolated from rats at 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following TA intoxication, and samples of blood and liver were obtained. Parameters related to liver damage were determined in blood. In order to evaluate the mechanisms involved in the post-necrotic regenerative state, the time course of DNA distribution and ploidy were assayed in isolated hepatocytes. The levels of circulating cytokine TNFα was assayed in serum samples. TNFα was also determined by RT-PCR in liver extracts. The results showed that GD significantly reduced the extent of necrosis. The effect of GD induced noticeable changes in the post-necrotic regeneration, causing an increased percentage of hepatocytes in S phase of the cell cycle. Hepatocytes increased their proliferation as a result of these changes. TNFα expression and serum level were diminished in rats pretreated with GD. Thus, GD pre-treatment reduced TA-induced liver injury and accelerated postnecrotic liver regeneration. No evidence of TNFα implication in this enhancement of hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration was found. These results demonstrate that Kupffer cells are involved in TA-induced liver damage, as well as and also in the postnecrotic proliferative liver states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Lewis (y) Antigen Overexpression Increases the Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and Invasion of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4441-4451; doi:10.3390/ijms11114441
Received: 25 October 2010 / Revised: 30 October 2010 / Accepted: 31 October 2010 / Published: 8 November 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lewis (y) antigen is a difucosylated oligosaccharide present on the plasma membrane, and its overexpression is frequently found in human cancers and has been shown to be associated with poor prognosis. Our previous studies have shown that Lewis (y) antigen plays a [...] Read more.
Lewis (y) antigen is a difucosylated oligosaccharide present on the plasma membrane, and its overexpression is frequently found in human cancers and has been shown to be associated with poor prognosis. Our previous studies have shown that Lewis (y) antigen plays a positive role in the process of invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. However, the mechanisms by which Lewis (y) antigen enhances the invasion and tumor metastasis are still unknown. In this study, we established a stable cell line constitutively expressing Lewis (y) antigen (RMG-1-hFUT) by transfecting the cDNA encoding part of the human α1,2-fucosyltransferase (α1,2-FUT) gene into the ovarian cancer cell line RMG-1, and investigated whether Lewis (y) antigen regulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. We found that RMG-1-hFUT cells exhibited higher invasive capacities than their control cells. In addition, expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was down-regulated and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was up-regulated. Anti-Lewis (y) antigen antibody treatment significantly reversed the expression of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that down-regulation of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 and up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 represents one of the mechanisms by which Lewis (y) antigen promotes cell invasion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecules in Ovarian Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Apocynum venetum L. (Luo-Bu-Ma) and Two of Its Alternative Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4452-4464; doi:10.3390/ijms11114452
Received: 30 September 2010 / Revised: 17 October 2010 / Accepted: 1 November 2010 / Published: 9 November 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The leaves of Apocynum venetum L. (AV), a native Chinese plant, have been used as folk medicine in China and Japan. This study evaluated the content of the active antioxidant component and antioxidant activities of AV, and its two alternative species, Poacynum [...] Read more.
The leaves of Apocynum venetum L. (AV), a native Chinese plant, have been used as folk medicine in China and Japan. This study evaluated the content of the active antioxidant component and antioxidant activities of AV, and its two alternative species, Poacynum pictum (Schrenk) Baill. (PP) and Poacynum hendersonii (Hook.f.) Woodson (PH). The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were determined. In addition, the quantitative analysis of two major flavonoid compounds (hyperoside and isoquercitrin) was carried out by HPLC. The antioxidant activities were investigated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity method, the reducing power test and the chelating ability of ferrous ions. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were observed in the AV methanolic extract, followed by the PP and PH methanolic extracts. HPLC analysis indicated that isoquercitrin was one of the major components in all three species, however, hyperoside was only detected in AV at high levels. All the antioxidant assays we performed demonstrated that the AV extract was markedly superior to those of the other two species. Full article
Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Properties of Mildronate, a Small Molecule, in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4465-4487; doi:10.3390/ijms11114465
Received: 20 September 2010 / Revised: 22 October 2010 / Accepted: 27 October 2010 / Published: 9 November 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previously, we have found that mildronate [3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium) propionate dihydrate], a small molecule with charged nitrogen and oxygen atoms, protects mitochondrial metabolism that is altered by inhibitors of complex I and has neuroprotective effects in an azidothymidine-neurotoxicity mouse model. In the present study, [...] Read more.
Previously, we have found that mildronate [3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium) propionate dihydrate], a small molecule with charged nitrogen and oxygen atoms, protects mitochondrial metabolism that is altered by inhibitors of complex I and has neuroprotective effects in an azidothymidine-neurotoxicity mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the effects of mildronate in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) that was generated via a unilateral intrastriatal injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6‑OHDA). We assessed the expression of cell biomarkers that are involved in signaling cascades and provide neural and glial integration: the neuronal marker TH (tyrosine hydroxylase); ubiquitin (a regulatory peptide involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation system); Notch-3 (a marker of progenitor cells); IBA-1 (a marker of microglial cells); glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP (a marker of astrocytes); and inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS (a marker of inflammation). The data show that in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum, mildronate completely prevented the loss of TH, stimulated Notch-3 expression and decreased the expression of ubiquitin, GFAP and iNOS. These results provide evidence for the ability of mildronate to control the expression of an array of cellular proteins and, thus, impart multi-faceted homeostatic mechanisms in neurons and glial cells in a rat model of PD. We suggest that the use of mildronate provides a protective effect during the early stages of PD that can delay or halt the progression of this neurodegenerative disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies (special issue))
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Open AccessArticle Proteomic Analysis of Whole Human Saliva Detects Enhanced Expression of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Thioredoxin and Lipocalin-1 in Cigarette Smokers Compared to Non-Smokers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4488-4505; doi:10.3390/ijms11114488
Received: 6 September 2010 / Revised: 25 October 2010 / Accepted: 5 November 2010 / Published: 9 November 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A gel-based proteomics approach was used to screen for proteins of differential abundance between the saliva of smokers and those who had never smoked. Subjecting precipitated proteins from whole human saliva of healthy non-smokers to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) generated typical profiles comprising [...] Read more.
A gel-based proteomics approach was used to screen for proteins of differential abundance between the saliva of smokers and those who had never smoked. Subjecting precipitated proteins from whole human saliva of healthy non-smokers to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) generated typical profiles comprising more than 50 proteins. While 35 of the proteins were previously established by other researchers, an additional 22 proteins were detected in the 2-DE saliva protein profiles generated in the present study. When the 2-DE profiles were compared to those obtained from subjects considered to be heavy cigarette smokers, three saliva proteins, including interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, thioredoxin and lipocalin-1, showed significant enhanced expression. The distribution patterns of lipocalin-1 isoforms were also different between cigarette smokers and on-smokers. The three saliva proteins have good potential to be used as biomarkers for the adverse effects of smoking and the risk for inflammatory and chronic diseases that are associated with it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
Open AccessArticle Insight into the Strong Antioxidant Activity of Deinoxanthin, a Unique Carotenoid in Deinococcus Radiodurans
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4506-4510; doi:10.3390/ijms11114506
Received: 23 October 2010 / Revised: 3 November 2010 / Accepted: 7 November 2010 / Published: 10 November 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deinoxanthin (DX) is a unique carotenoid synthesized by Deinococcus radiodurans, one of the most radioresistant organisms known. In comparison with other carotenoids, DX was proven to exhibit significantly stronger reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity, which plays an important role in the [...] Read more.
Deinoxanthin (DX) is a unique carotenoid synthesized by Deinococcus radiodurans, one of the most radioresistant organisms known. In comparison with other carotenoids, DX was proven to exhibit significantly stronger reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity, which plays an important role in the radioresistance of D. radiodurans. In this work, to gain deeper insights into the strong antioxidant activity of DX, the parameters characterizing ROS-scavenging potential were calculated by means of quantum chemical calculations. It was found that DX possesses lower lowest triplet excitation energy for its unique structure than other carotenoids, such as β-carotene and zeaxanthin, which endows DX strong potential in the energy transfer-based ROS‑scavenging process. Moreover, the H-atom donating potential of DX is similar to zeaxanthin according to the theoretical homolytic O-H bond dissociation enthalpy. Thus, the large number of conjugated double bonds should be crucial for its strong antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Production and Characterization of Fengycin by Indigenous Bacillus subtilis F29-3 Originating from a Potato Farm
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4526-4538; doi:10.3390/ijms11114526
Received: 8 October 2010 / Revised: 24 October 2010 / Accepted: 10 November 2010 / Published: 12 November 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fengycin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, was produced by indigenous Bacillus subtilis F29-3 isolated from a potato farm. Although inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi, the fengycin is ineffective against yeast and bacteria. In this study, fengycin was isolated from fermentation broth of B. [...] Read more.
Fengycin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, was produced by indigenous Bacillus subtilis F29-3 isolated from a potato farm. Although inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi, the fengycin is ineffective against yeast and bacteria. In this study, fengycin was isolated from fermentation broth of B. subtilis F29-3 via acidic precipitation (pH 2.0 with 5 N HCl) followed by purification using ultrafiltration and nanofiltration. The purified fengycin product was characterized qualitatively by using fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight, followed by quantitative analysis using reversed-phase HPLC system. This study also attempted to increase fengycin production by B. subtilis F29-3 in order to optimize the fermentation medium constituents. The fermentation medium composition was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to increase fengycin production from B. subtilis F29-3. According to results of the five-level four-factor central composite design, the composition of soybean meal, NaNO3, MnSO4·4H2O, mannitol-mannitol, soybean meal-mannitol, soybean meal‑soybean meal, NaNO3-NaNO3 and MnSO4·4H2O-MnSO4·4H2O significantly affected production. The simulation model produced a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9043, capable of accounting for 90.43% variability of the data. Results of the steepest ascent and central composite design indicated that 26.2 g/L of mannitol, 21.9 g/L of soybean meal, 3.1 g/L of NaNO3 and 0.2 g/L of MnSO4·4H2O represented the optimal medium composition, leading to the highest production of fengycin. Furthermore, the optimization strategy increased the fengycin production from 1.2 g/L to 3.5 g/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosurfactants)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4539-4555; doi:10.3390/ijms11114539
Received: 25 September 2010 / Revised: 25 October 2010 / Accepted: 1 November 2010 / Published: 15 November 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High [...] Read more.
The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 µmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 µmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 µmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Paradoxical Acceleration of Dithiothreitol-Induced Aggregation of Insulin in the Presence of a Chaperone
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4556-4579; doi:10.3390/ijms11114556
Received: 30 September 2010 / Revised: 21 October 2010 / Accepted: 9 November 2010 / Published: 15 November 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The kinetics of dithiothreitol (DTT)-induced aggregation of human recombinant insulin and the effect of α-crystallin, a representative of the family of small heat shock proteins, on the aggregation process have been studied using dynamic light scattering technique. Analysis of the distribution of [...] Read more.
The kinetics of dithiothreitol (DTT)-induced aggregation of human recombinant insulin and the effect of α-crystallin, a representative of the family of small heat shock proteins, on the aggregation process have been studied using dynamic light scattering technique. Analysis of the distribution of the particles by size measured in the course of aggregation showed that the initial stage of the aggregation process was the stage of formation of the start aggregates with a hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of about 90 nm. When studying the effect of α-crystallin on the rate of DTT-induced aggregation of insulin, it was demonstrated that low concentrations of α-crystallin dramatically accelerated the aggregation process, whereas high concentrations of α-crystallin suppressed insulin aggregation. In the present study, at the molar stoichiometric ratio (insulin:α-crystallin) less than 1:0.5, a pronounced accelerating effect of α-crystallin was observed; whereas a ratio exceeding the value of 1:0.6 caused suppression of insulin aggregation. The mechanisms underlying the dual effect of α-crystallin have been proposed. It is assumed that heterogeneous nucleation occurring on the surface of the α-crystallin particle plays the key role in the paradoxical acceleration of insulin aggregation by α-crystallin that may provide an alternative biologically significant pathway of the aggregation process. Full article
Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Properties of Picroside II in a Rat Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4580-4590; doi:10.3390/ijms11114580
Received: 6 October 2010 / Revised: 30 October 2010 / Accepted: 30 October 2010 / Published: 16 November 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the effect of picroside II on neuronal apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) following middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion in male Wistar rats. Picroside II (10 mg/kg) was administered intravenously [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to explore the effect of picroside II on neuronal apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) following middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion in male Wistar rats. Picroside II (10 mg/kg) was administered intravenously into the tail vein of the animals. The neurological function deficits were evaluated with the Bederson’s test and the cerebral infarction volume was visualized with tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The apoptotic cells were counted by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The immunohistochemistry stain and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the expressions of caspase-3 and PARP in brain tissue. The results indicated that rats in the control group showed neurological function deficit and cerebral infarction in ischemic hemisphere after two hours ischemia followed by 22 hours reperfusion. Caspase-3 and PARP expressions were also profound in the cortex, the striatum and the hippocampus, along with increased apoptotic cells in this group. Bederson's score, infarction volume, and expressions of caspase-3 and PARP, as well as apoptosis in the treatment group were, however, significantly decreased compared to those in the control group indicating that intravenous treatment with picroside II might be beneficial to inhibit neuronal apoptosis and, thus, to improve the neurological function of rats upon cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies (special issue))
Open AccessArticle Effect of Oxidative Damage Due to Excessive Protein Ingestion on Pancreas Function in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4591-4600; doi:10.3390/ijms11114591
Received: 31 October 2010 / Revised: 9 November 2010 / Accepted: 10 November 2010 / Published: 16 November 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of oxidative damage due to excessive protein diet on pancreas function in mice. For this purpose, thirty male (C57BL/6J) mice were randomly divided into three groups and fed on different diets as follows: group 1 was fed on a normal diet, group 2 was fed on an excessive protein diet and group 3 was fed on an excessive protein diet supplemented with 0.06 g/kg cysteamine. Each group was fed for 2 weeks, and then pancreas samples were collected to examine oxidative and antioxidant parameters and pancreas function. The results showed that ingestion of an excessive protein diet markedly increased contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased T-AOC and activities of antioxidants SOD and GSH-Px, compared with a normal diet (P < 0.05). Pancreas weight and concentration of protein, DNA and RNA were significantly higher (P < 0.05), digestive enzyme activities were significantly lower and levels of somatostatin and insulin were higher in mice fed with an excessive protein diet than those fed with a normal protein diet. In the group fed with excessive protein diet supplemented with cysteamine, oxidative stress was mitigated and pancreas function was improved. These data demonstrate that excessive protein ingestion could increase oxidative damage of free radicals on pancreas function through destroying the balance of oxidants and antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of P-Selectin from Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4618-4630; doi:10.3390/ijms11114618
Received: 21 October 2010 / Revised: 7 November 2010 / Accepted: 10 November 2010 / Published: 17 November 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The glycoprotein P-selectin belongs to the selectin family of cell adhesion molecules. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of P-selectin from zebrafish (Danio rerio) by the method of rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). Zebrafish [...] Read more.
The glycoprotein P-selectin belongs to the selectin family of cell adhesion molecules. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of P-selectin from zebrafish (Danio rerio) by the method of rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). Zebrafish P-selectin cDNA is 2,800 bp and encodes a putative 868 amino acid protein with a theoretical molecular weight of 122.36 kDa and isoelectric point of 6.27. A signal peptide of 25 amino acids is predicted at the N-terminus of the putative protein. All structural domains involved in P-selectin function are conserved in the putative protein. The amino acid sequence of zebrafish P-selectin is 37% to 39% identical to that of mammalian P-selectins. Real-time quantitative PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that P-selectin was expressed in early embryonic development, the expression increased from 0.2 hpf (1-cell stage) to 72 hpf, and the expression significantly upregulated within 30 minutes of ADP induction. The results indicate that the structure of P-selectin protein is highly conserved among species and zebrafish P-selectin plays an important role in early embryonic development and probably has similar biological function to mammalian P-selectins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Modulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis in THP-1 Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4660-4672; doi:10.3390/ijms11114660
Received: 1 November 2010 / Revised: 10 November 2010 / Accepted: 16 November 2010 / Published: 17 November 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1046 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transformation of macrophages to foam cells is determined by the rates of cholesterol uptake and efflux. This study uses a real time RT-PCR technique to investigate the role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the [...] Read more.
Transformation of macrophages to foam cells is determined by the rates of cholesterol uptake and efflux. This study uses a real time RT-PCR technique to investigate the role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the regulation of the ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) and liver X receptor α (LXR) genes, which are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Accordingly, these fatty acids significantly reduced the total, free and esterified cholesterols within the foam cells. While the expression of the ABCA1 and LXRα genes was increased in the presence of the pharmacological LXRα ligand, T0901317, their mRNA expression was not significantly affected by CLA, ALA and EPA. These results suggest that although polyunsaturated fatty acids have an effect on cholesterol homeostasis, they cannot change the expression of the ABCA1 and LXRα genes. Alternatively, several other genes and proteins may be involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Amino Acid Patterns around Disulfide Bonds
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4673-4686; doi:10.3390/ijms11114673
Received: 17 October 2010 / Revised: 4 November 2010 / Accepted: 11 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Disulfide bonds provide an inexhaustible source of information on molecular evolution and biological specificity. In this work, we described the amino acid composition around disulfide bonds in a set of disulfide-rich proteins using appropriate descriptors, based on ANOVA (for all twenty natural [...] Read more.
Disulfide bonds provide an inexhaustible source of information on molecular evolution and biological specificity. In this work, we described the amino acid composition around disulfide bonds in a set of disulfide-rich proteins using appropriate descriptors, based on ANOVA (for all twenty natural amino acids or classes of amino acids clustered according to their chemical similarities) and Scheffé (for the disulfide-rich proteins superfamilies) statistics. We found that weakly hydrophilic and aromatic amino acids are quite abundant in the regions around disulfide bonds, contrary to aliphatic and hydrophobic amino acids. The density distributions (as a function of the distance to the center of the disulfide bonds) for all defined entities presented an overall unimodal behavior: the densities are null at short distances, have maxima at intermediate distances and decrease for long distances. In the end, the amino acid environment around the disulfide bonds was found to be different for different superfamilies, allowing the clustering of proteins in a biologically relevant way, suggesting that this type of chemical information might be used as a tool to assess the relationship between very divergent sets of disulfide-rich proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Hybrid Endovascular Repair in Aortic Arch Pathologies: A Retrospective Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4687-4696; doi:10.3390/ijms11114687
Received: 19 October 2010 / Revised: 7 November 2010 / Accepted: 10 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-textRetraction
Abstract
The aortic arch presents specific challenges to endovascular repair. Hybrid repair is increasingly evolving as an alternative option for selected patients, and promising initial results have been reported. The aim of this study was to introduce our experiences and evaluate mid-term results [...] Read more.
The aortic arch presents specific challenges to endovascular repair. Hybrid repair is increasingly evolving as an alternative option for selected patients, and promising initial results have been reported. The aim of this study was to introduce our experiences and evaluate mid-term results of supra aortic transpositions for extended endovascular repair of aortic arch pathologies. From December 2002 to January 2008, 25 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections involving the aortic arch were treated with hybrid endovascular treatment in our center. Of the 25 cases, 14 were atherosclerotic thoracic aortic aneurysms and 11 were thoracic aortic dissection. The hybrid repair method included total-arch transpositions (15 cases) or hemi-arch transpositions (10 cases), and endovascular procedures. All hybrid endovascular procedures were completed successfully. Three early residual type-I endoleaks and one type-II endoleak were observed. Stroke occurred in three patients (8%) during the in-hospital stage. The perioperative mortality rate was 4%; one patients died post-operatively from catheter related complications. The average follow-up period was 15 ± 5.8 months (range, 1–41 months). The overall crude survival rate at 15 months was 92% (23/25). During follow-up, new late endoleaks and stent-raft related complications were not observed. One case (4%) developed a unilateral lower limb deficit at 17 days and was readmitted to hospital. In conclusion, the results are encouraging for endovascular aortic arch repair in combination with supra-aortic transposition in high risk cases. Aortic endografting offers good mid-term results. Mid-term results of the hybrid approach in elderly patients with aortic arch pathologies are satisfying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of TNFα to Lipopolysaccharide as an Inflammagen to Characterize the Idiosyncratic Hepatotoxicity Potential of Drugs: Trovafloxacin as an Example
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4697-4714; doi:10.3390/ijms11114697
Received: 12 September 2010 / Revised: 22 October 2010 / Accepted: 15 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs) are poorly understood, unpredictable, and not detected in preclinical studies. Although the cause of these reactions is likely multi-factorial, one hypothesis is that an underlying inflammatory state lowers the tolerance to a xenobiotic. Previously used in an inflammation [...] Read more.
Idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs) are poorly understood, unpredictable, and not detected in preclinical studies. Although the cause of these reactions is likely multi-factorial, one hypothesis is that an underlying inflammatory state lowers the tolerance to a xenobiotic. Previously used in an inflammation IDR model, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is heterogeneous in nature, making development of standardized testing protocols difficult. Here, the use of rat tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) to replace LPS as an inflammatory stimulus was investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with separate preparations of LPS or TNFα, and hepatic transcriptomic effects were compared. TNFα showed enhanced consistency at the transcriptomic level compared to LPS. TNFα and LPS regulated similar biochemical pathways, although LPS was associated with more robust inflammatory signaling than TNFα. Rats were then codosed with TNFα and trovafloxacin (TVX), an IDR-associated drug, and evaluated by liver histopathology, clinical chemistry, and gene expression analysis. TNFα/TVX induced unique gene expression changes that clustered separately from TNFα/levofloxacin, a drug not associated with IDRs. TNFα/TVX cotreatment led to autoinduction of TNFα resulting in potentiation of underlying gene expression stress signals. Comparison of TNFα/TVX and LPS/TVX gene expression profiles revealed similarities in the regulation of biochemical pathways. In conclusion, TNFα could be used in lieu of LPS as an inflammatory stimulus in this model of IDRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Toxicology)
Open AccessArticle Study of Influencing Factors and the Mechanism of Preparing Triazinedithiol Polymeric Nanofilms on Aluminum Surfaces
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4715-4725; doi:10.3390/ijms11114715
Received: 27 September 2010 / Revised: 19 October 2010 / Accepted: 17 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Triazinedithiol polymeric nanofilm was prepared on a pure aluminum surface by electrochemical polymerization of AF17N. The mechanism of the process was proposed and electrochemical polymerization parameters were investigated. The triazinedithiol polymeric nanofilm had notable lubricity, high dielectric property and superhydrophobic property due [...] Read more.
Triazinedithiol polymeric nanofilm was prepared on a pure aluminum surface by electrochemical polymerization of AF17N. The mechanism of the process was proposed and electrochemical polymerization parameters were investigated. The triazinedithiol polymeric nanofilm had notable lubricity, high dielectric property and superhydrophobic property due to the allyl and fluoro alkyl groups in the AF17N monomer. The chemical structure of poly (6-(N-allyl-1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorodecyl)amino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium) nanofilm (PAF17) was investigated by analysis of FT-IR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optimal conditions for the preparation process were based on the data of film weight and thickness. The optimal parameters of monomer concentration, electropolymerization time and temperature were 5 mM, 6 min and 15 °C, respectively. The electropolymerization mechanism was a radical polymerization reaction. It is expected that this technique will be applied in industrial fields for aluminum and aluminum alloy to achieve functional surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of the Culture Medium Composition to Improve the Production of Hyoscyamine in Elicited Datura stramonium L. Hairy Roots Using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4726-4740; doi:10.3390/ijms11114726
Received: 14 October 2010 / Revised: 3 November 2010 / Accepted: 17 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditionally, optimization in biological analyses has been carried out by monitoring the influence of one factor at a time; this technique is called one‑variable‑at‑a‑time. The disadvantage of this technique is that it does not include any interactive effects among the variables studied [...] Read more.
Traditionally, optimization in biological analyses has been carried out by monitoring the influence of one factor at a time; this technique is called one‑variable‑at‑a‑time. The disadvantage of this technique is that it does not include any interactive effects among the variables studied and requires a large number of experiments. Therefore, in recent years, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has become the most popular optimization method. It is an effective mathematical and statistical technique which has been widely used in optimization studies with minimal experimental trials where interactive factors may be involved. This present study follows on from our previous work, where RSM was used to optimize the B5 medium composition in [NO3−], [Ca2+] and sucrose to attain the best production of hyoscyamine (HS) from the hairy roots (HRs) of Datura stramonium elicited by Jasmonic Acid (JA). The present paper focuses on the use of the RSM in biological studies, such as plant material, to establish a predictive model with the planning of experiments, analysis of the model, diagnostics and adjustment for the accuracy of the model. With the RSM, only 20 experiments were necessary to determine optimal concentrations. The model could be employed to carry out interpolations and predict the response to elicitation. Applying this model, the optimization of the HS level was 212.7% for the elicited HRs of Datura stramonium, cultured in B5-OP medium (optimized), in comparison with elicited HRs cultured in B5 medium (control). The optimal concentrations, under experimental conditions, were determined to be: 79.1 mM [NO3−], 11.4 mM [Ca2+] and 42.9 mg/L of sucrose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Total Flavonoid Compound Extraction from Gynura medica Leaf Using Response Surface Methodology and Chemical Composition Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4750-4763; doi:10.3390/ijms11114750
Received: 21 September 2010 / Revised: 26 October 2010 / Accepted: 15 November 2010 / Published: 22 November 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optimization of total flavonoid compound (TFC) extraction from Gynura medica leaf was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) in this paper. The conditions investigated were 30–60% (v/v) ethanol concentration (X1), 8595 °C extraction temperature (X2) and 30–50 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio (X3). Statistical analysis of the experiments indicated that temperature and liquid-to-solid ratio significantly affected TFC extraction (p < 0.01). The Box-Behnken experiment design showed that polynomial regression models were in good agreement with the experimental results, with the coefficients of determination of 0.9325 for TFC yield. The optimal conditions for maximum TFC yield were 55% ethanol, 92 °C and 50 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio with a 30 min extraction time. Extracts from these conditions showed a moderate antioxidant value of 54.78 μmol quercetin/g dry material (DM), 137.3 μmol trolox/g DM for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 108.21 μmol quercetin/g DM, 242.31 μmol trolox/g DM for 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS+), respectively. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis showed that kaempferol-3-O-glucoside was the principal flavonoid compound in Gynura medica leaf. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles Dispersed in Palm Oil Using Laser Ablation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4764-4770; doi:10.3390/ijms11114764
Received: 11 October 2010 / Revised: 3 November 2010 / Accepted: 9 November 2010 / Published: 22 November 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study we used a laser ablation technique for preparation of silver nanoparticles. The fabrication process was carried out by ablation of a silver plate immersed in palm oil. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm was used [...] Read more.
In this study we used a laser ablation technique for preparation of silver nanoparticles. The fabrication process was carried out by ablation of a silver plate immersed in palm oil. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The palm oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with very small and uniform particle size, which are dispersed very homogeneously within the solution. The obtained particle sizes for 15 and 30 minute ablation times were 2.5 and 2 nm, respectively. Stability study shows that all of the samples remained stable for a reasonable period of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Identification of Compounds in the Essential Oil of Nutmeg Seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4771-4781; doi:10.3390/ijms11114771
Received: 11 October 2010 / Revised: 8 November 2010 / Accepted: 15 November 2010 / Published: 23 November 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction [...] Read more.
The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE-C18) and GC/MS analysis. The essential oil was administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that inhalation of nutmeg seed essential oil at a dose of 0.5 mL/cage decreased locomotion by 68.62%; and inhalation of 0.1 and 0.3 mL/cage inhibited locomotion by 62.81% and 65.33%, respectively. Generally, larger doses and longer administrations of nutmeg seed essential oil exhibited greater locomotor inhibition. Subsequently, the plasma concentrations of essential oil compounds were measured. The most concentrated compound in the plasma was myristicin. Half an hour after the addition of 1 mL/cage of nutmeg seed oil, the plasma concentration of myristicin was 3.7 mg/mL; one and two hours after the addition, the blood levels of myristicin were 5.2 mg/mL and 7.1 mg/mL, respectively. Other essential oil compounds identified in plasma were safrole (two-hour inhalation: 1.28 mg/mL), 4‑terpineol (half-hour inhalation: 1.49 mg/mL, one-hour inhalation: 2.95 mg/mL, two-hour inhalation: 6.28 mg/mL) and fatty esters. The concentrations of the essential oil compounds in the blood plasma were relatively low (mg/mL or ppm). In conclusion, the volatile compounds of nutmeg seed essential oil identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Toxicology)

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Open AccessReview Proteomic Serum Biomarkers and Their Potential Application in Cancer Screening Programs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4175-4193; doi:10.3390/ijms11114175
Received: 15 September 2010 / Revised: 16 October 2010 / Accepted: 18 October 2010 / Published: 26 October 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Early diagnosis of cancer is of pivotal importance to reduce disease-related mortality. There is great need for non-invasive screening methods, yet current screening protocols have limited sensitivity and specificity. The use of serum biomarkers to discriminate cancer patients from healthy persons might [...] Read more.
Early diagnosis of cancer is of pivotal importance to reduce disease-related mortality. There is great need for non-invasive screening methods, yet current screening protocols have limited sensitivity and specificity. The use of serum biomarkers to discriminate cancer patients from healthy persons might be a tool to improve screening programs. Mass spectrometry based proteomics is widely applied as a technology for mapping and identifying peptides and proteins in body fluids. One commonly used approach in proteomics is peptide and protein profiling. Here, we present an overview of profiling methods that have the potential for implementation in a clinical setting and in national screening programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
Open AccessReview α-Synuclein and DJ-1 as Potential Biological Fluid Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4257-4266; doi:10.3390/ijms11114257
Received: 14 September 2010 / Revised: 20 October 2010 / Accepted: 28 October 2010 / Published: 29 October 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common form of movement disorder and affects approximately 4% of the population aged over 80 years old. Currently, PD cannot be prevented or cured, and no single diagnostic biomarkers are available. Notably, recent studies suggest that [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common form of movement disorder and affects approximately 4% of the population aged over 80 years old. Currently, PD cannot be prevented or cured, and no single diagnostic biomarkers are available. Notably, recent studies suggest that two familial PD-linked molecules, α-synuclein and DJ-1, are present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and that their levels may be altered during the progression of PD. In this regard, sensitive and accurate methods for evaluation of α-synuclein and DJ-1 levels in the CSF and blood have been developed, and the results suggest that the levels of both molecules are significantly decreased in the CSF in patients with PD compared with age-matched controls. Furthermore, specific detection and quantification of neurotoxic oligometric forms of α-synuclein in the blood using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays might be expected as potential peripheral biomarkers for PD, although further validation is required. Currently, neither α-synuclein nor DJ-1 is satisfactory as a single biomarker for PD, but combinatory evaluation of these biological fluid molecules with other biomarkers and imaging techniques may provide reliable information for diagnosis of PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
Open AccessReview The Role of Molecular Biology in the Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Chemicals
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4511-4525; doi:10.3390/ijms11114511
Received: 1 September 2010 / Revised: 12 October 2010 / Accepted: 29 October 2010 / Published: 12 November 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased [...] Read more.
Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring personnel while evaluating work-related pathologies. Originally, occupational exposure to environmental toxicants was assessed using biochemical techniques to determine the presence of higher concentrations of toxic compounds in blood, urine, or other fluids or tissues; results were used to evaluate potential health risk. However, this approach only estimates the presence of a noxious chemical and its effects, but does not prevent or diminish the risk. Molecular biology methods have become very useful in occupational medicine to provide more accurate and opportune diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the role of the following common techniques: (1) Use of cell cultures; (2) evaluation of gene expression; (3) the “omic” sciences (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) and (4) bioinformatics. We suggest that molecular biology has many applications in occupational health where the data can be applied to general environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Open AccessReview Biomarker Analysis of Stored Blood Products: Emphasis on Pre-Analytical Issues
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4601-4617; doi:10.3390/ijms11114601
Received: 18 October 2010 / Revised: 10 November 2010 / Accepted: 14 November 2010 / Published: 17 November 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored [...] Read more.
Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored according to its particular components. However, during storage, modifications or degradation of those components may occur, and are known as storage lesions. Thus, biomarker discovery of in vivo blood aging as well as in vitro labile blood products storage lesions is of high interest for the transfusion medicine community. Pre-analytical issues are of major importance in analyzing the various blood products during storage conditions as well as according to various protocols that are currently used in blood banks for their preparations. This paper will review key elements that have to be taken into account in the context of proteomic-based biomarker discovery applied to blood banking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
Open AccessReview Isoprostanes-Biomarkers of Lipid Peroxidation: Their Utility in Evaluating Oxidative Stress and Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4631-4659; doi:10.3390/ijms11114631
Received: 29 September 2010 / Revised: 29 October 2010 / Accepted: 16 November 2010 / Published: 17 November 2010
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Isoprostanes (IsoPs) are key biomarkers for investigating the role of free radical generation in the pathogenesis of human disorders. To solve IsoPs-related problems with regard to isoprostanes, analytical tools are required. This paper reviews the problems and trends in this field focusing [...] Read more.
Isoprostanes (IsoPs) are key biomarkers for investigating the role of free radical generation in the pathogenesis of human disorders. To solve IsoPs-related problems with regard to isoprostanes, analytical tools are required. This paper reviews the problems and trends in this field focusing on the methodology for assaying biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples. A large amount of work has been done in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of IsoPs, but a standardized method has yet to emerge. The methodologies described differ, either in the sample preparation steps or in the detection techniques, or both. Requiring a number of chromatographic steps, the relevant extraction and purification procedures are often critical and time-consuming, and they lead to a substantial loss of target compounds. Recent data show that EBC is a promising non‑invasive tool for the evaluation of different diseases. Two main analytical approaches have been adopted for IsoPs measurement: immunological methods and mass spectrometry. The methodologies for the extraction, purification and analysis of IsoPs in EBC samples are presented.Isoprostanes (IsoPs) are key biomarkers for investigating the role of free radical generation in the pathogenesis of human disorders. To solve IsoPs-related problems with regard to isoprostanes, analytical tools are required. This paper reviews the problems and trends in this field focusing on the methodology for assaying biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples. A large amount of work has been done in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of IsoPs, but a standardized method has yet to emerge. The methodologies described differ, either in the sample preparation steps or in the detection techniques, or both. Requiring a number of chromatographic steps, the relevant extraction and purification procedures are often critical and time-consuming, and they lead to a substantial loss of target compounds. Recent data show that EBC is a promising non‑invasive tool for the evaluation of different diseases. Two main analytical approaches have been adopted for IsoPs measurement: immunological methods and mass spectrometry. The methodologies for the extraction, purification and analysis of IsoPs in EBC samples are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)

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Open AccessBrief Report Copper Transporter 2 Content Is Lower in Liver and Heart of Copper-Deficient Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4741-4749; doi:10.3390/ijms11114741
Received: 20 October 2010 / Revised: 16 November 2010 / Accepted: 17 November 2010 / Published: 19 November 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Copper (Cu) transporter 2 (Ctr2) is a transmembrane protein that transports Cu across cell membranes and increases cytosolic Cu levels. Experiments using cell lines have suggested that Ctr2 expression is regulated by Cu status. The importance of changes in Ctr2 expression is [...] Read more.
Copper (Cu) transporter 2 (Ctr2) is a transmembrane protein that transports Cu across cell membranes and increases cytosolic Cu levels. Experiments using cell lines have suggested that Ctr2 expression is regulated by Cu status. The importance of changes in Ctr2 expression is underscored by recent studies demonstrating that lower Ctr2 content in cells increases the cellular uptake of platinum-containing cancer drugs and toxicity to the drugs. In this study, we examined whether Ctr2 expression is altered by a nutritional Cu deficiency in vivo. Ctr2 mRNA and protein in liver and heart from rats fed a normal (Cu-N), moderately deficient (Cu-M) or deficient (Cu-D) Cu diet was measured. Rats fed the Cu-deficient diets showed a dose-dependent decrease in liver Ctr2 protein compared to Cu-N rats. Ctr2 protein was 42% and 85% lower in Cu-M and Cu-D rats, respectively. Liver Ctr2 mRNA was 50% lower in Cu-D rats and unaffected in Cu-M rats. In heart, Ctr2 protein was only lower in Cu-D rats (46% lower). These data show that Cu deficiency decreases Ctr2 content in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)

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