Next Article in Journal
Study of Influencing Factors and the Mechanism of Preparing Triazinedithiol Polymeric Nanofilms on Aluminum Surfaces
Next Article in Special Issue
Identification of Compounds in the Essential Oil of Nutmeg Seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice
Previous Article in Journal
Hybrid Endovascular Repair in Aortic Arch Pathologies: A Retrospective Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Individual and Combined Effects of Deoxynivalenol and Aflatoxin B1 on Primary Hepatocytes of Cyprinus Carpio
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4697-4714; doi:10.3390/ijms11114697
Article

Comparison of TNFα to Lipopolysaccharide as an Inflammagen to Characterize the Idiosyncratic Hepatotoxicity Potential of Drugs: Trovafloxacin as an Example

1,* , 1
,
2
,
2,†
,
3
,
4
,
3
,
1
,
2
,
2
 and
1
1 Department of Cellular, Molecular, & Exploratory Toxicology, Abbott Laboratories, IL 60064, USA 2 Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, University; East Lansing, MI 48824, USA 3 Discovery Toxicology, Bristol-Myers Squibb; Princeton, NJ 08540, USA 4 The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Glasgow, UK Current address: Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, MS-1018, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2010 / Revised: 22 October 2010 / Accepted: 15 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Toxicology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [842 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs) are poorly understood, unpredictable, and not detected in preclinical studies. Although the cause of these reactions is likely multi-factorial, one hypothesis is that an underlying inflammatory state lowers the tolerance to a xenobiotic. Previously used in an inflammation IDR model, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is heterogeneous in nature, making development of standardized testing protocols difficult. Here, the use of rat tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) to replace LPS as an inflammatory stimulus was investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with separate preparations of LPS or TNFα, and hepatic transcriptomic effects were compared. TNFα showed enhanced consistency at the transcriptomic level compared to LPS. TNFα and LPS regulated similar biochemical pathways, although LPS was associated with more robust inflammatory signaling than TNFα. Rats were then codosed with TNFα and trovafloxacin (TVX), an IDR-associated drug, and evaluated by liver histopathology, clinical chemistry, and gene expression analysis. TNFα/TVX induced unique gene expression changes that clustered separately from TNFα/levofloxacin, a drug not associated with IDRs. TNFα/TVX cotreatment led to autoinduction of TNFα resulting in potentiation of underlying gene expression stress signals. Comparison of TNFα/TVX and LPS/TVX gene expression profiles revealed similarities in the regulation of biochemical pathways. In conclusion, TNFα could be used in lieu of LPS as an inflammatory stimulus in this model of IDRs.
Keywords: idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity; liver; inflammation; rat; transcriptomics idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity; liver; inflammation; rat; transcriptomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplement

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Liguori, M.J.; Ditewig, A.C.; Maddox, J.F.; Luyendyk, J.P.; Lehman-McKeeman, L.D.; Nelson, D.M.; Bhaskaran, V.M.; Waring, J.F.; Ganey, P.E.; Roth, R.A.; Blomme, E.A.G. Comparison of TNFα to Lipopolysaccharide as an Inflammagen to Characterize the Idiosyncratic Hepatotoxicity Potential of Drugs: Trovafloxacin as an Example. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 4697-4714.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert