Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4539-4555; doi:10.3390/ijms11114539
Article

Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

1
, 1,*  and 2
Received: 25 September 2010; in revised form: 25 October 2010 / Accepted: 1 November 2010 / Published: 15 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [248 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 µmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 µmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 µmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds.
Keywords: photosynthesis; flavonoids; salicylic acid; Halia Bentong; Halia Bara photosynthesis; flavonoids; salicylic acid; Halia Bentong; Halia Bara
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Ghasemzadeh, A.; Jaafar, H.Z.E.; Rahmat, A. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 4539-4555.

AMA Style

Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Rahmat A. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(11):4539-4555.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah. 2010. "Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 11: 4539-4555.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert