Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4361-4380; doi:10.3390/ijms11114361
Article

Hazardous Apoptotic Effects of 2-Bromopropane on Maturation of Mouse Oocytes, Fertilization, and Fetal Development

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Received: 8 October 2010; in revised form: 1 November 2010 / Accepted: 1 November 2010 / Published: 3 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: 2-Bromopropane (2-BP) is used as an alternative to ozone-depleting cleaning solvents. Previously, we reported that 2-BP has cytotoxic effects on mouse blastocysts and is associated with defects in subsequent development. Here, we further investigate the effects of 2-BP on oocyte maturation and subsequent pre- and post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, 2-BP induced a significant reduction in the rates of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and in vitro embryonic development. Treatment of oocytes with 2-BP during in vitro maturation (IVM) resulted in increased resorption of postimplantation embryos and decreased fetal weights. Experiments with a mouse model disclosed that consumption of drinking water containing 20 μM 2-BP led to decreased oocyte maturation in vivo and fertilization in vitro, as well as impairment of early embryonic development. Interestingly, pretreatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor effectively prevented 2-BP-triggered hazardous effects, suggesting that embryonic impairment by 2-BP occurs via a caspase-dependent apoptotic process. A study using embryonic stem cells as the assay model conclusively demonstrated that 2-BP induces cell death processes through apoptosis and not necrosis, and inhibits early embryo development in mouse embryonic stem cells. These results collectively confirm the hazardous effects of 2-BP on embryos derived from pretreated oocytes.
Keywords: 2-bromopropane; apoptosis; oocyte maturation; embryonic development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chan, W.-H. Hazardous Apoptotic Effects of 2-Bromopropane on Maturation of Mouse Oocytes, Fertilization, and Fetal Development. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 4361-4380.

AMA Style

Chan W-H. Hazardous Apoptotic Effects of 2-Bromopropane on Maturation of Mouse Oocytes, Fertilization, and Fetal Development. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(11):4361-4380.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chan, Wen-Hsiung. 2010. "Hazardous Apoptotic Effects of 2-Bromopropane on Maturation of Mouse Oocytes, Fertilization, and Fetal Development." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 11: 4361-4380.


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