Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(11), 4488-4505; doi:10.3390/ijms11114488
Article

Proteomic Analysis of Whole Human Saliva Detects Enhanced Expression of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Thioredoxin and Lipocalin-1 in Cigarette Smokers Compared to Non-Smokers

1email, 2email, 1email and 2,3,* email
Received: 6 September 2010; in revised form: 25 October 2010 / Accepted: 5 November 2010 / Published: 9 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: A gel-based proteomics approach was used to screen for proteins of differential abundance between the saliva of smokers and those who had never smoked. Subjecting precipitated proteins from whole human saliva of healthy non-smokers to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) generated typical profiles comprising more than 50 proteins. While 35 of the proteins were previously established by other researchers, an additional 22 proteins were detected in the 2-DE saliva protein profiles generated in the present study. When the 2-DE profiles were compared to those obtained from subjects considered to be heavy cigarette smokers, three saliva proteins, including interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, thioredoxin and lipocalin-1, showed significant enhanced expression. The distribution patterns of lipocalin-1 isoforms were also different between cigarette smokers and on-smokers. The three saliva proteins have good potential to be used as biomarkers for the adverse effects of smoking and the risk for inflammatory and chronic diseases that are associated with it.
Keywords: saliva; proteome; smoker; biomarker
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jessie, K.; Pang, W.W.; Rahim, Z.H.A.; Hashim, O.H. Proteomic Analysis of Whole Human Saliva Detects Enhanced Expression of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Thioredoxin and Lipocalin-1 in Cigarette Smokers Compared to Non-Smokers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 4488-4505.

AMA Style

Jessie K, Pang WW, Rahim ZHA, Hashim OH. Proteomic Analysis of Whole Human Saliva Detects Enhanced Expression of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Thioredoxin and Lipocalin-1 in Cigarette Smokers Compared to Non-Smokers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(11):4488-4505.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jessie, Kala; Pang, Wei Wei; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Hashim, Onn Haji. 2010. "Proteomic Analysis of Whole Human Saliva Detects Enhanced Expression of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Thioredoxin and Lipocalin-1 in Cigarette Smokers Compared to Non-Smokers." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 11: 4488-4505.

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