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Molecules, Volume 15, Issue 6 (June 2010), Pages 3775-4489

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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Hepatoprotective Effects of Lentinula edodes against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4478-4489; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064478
Received: 6 May 2010 / Revised: 9 June 2010 / Accepted: 10 June 2010 / Published: 23 June 2010
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (524 KB)
Abstract
Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of methanolic extracts of L. edodes and the determination of their total phenolics content. Results: The amount of total phenolics was estimated to be 70.83 mg Gallic
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Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of methanolic extracts of L. edodes and the determination of their total phenolics content. Results: The amount of total phenolics was estimated to be 70.83 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) per gram of dry extract. The antioxidant activity of the L. edodes extract was 39.0% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an EC50 value of 4.4 mg/mL. Different groups of animals (Wister albino mice) were administered paracetamol (1 g/kg, p.o.). L. edodes extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg was administered to the paracetamol treated mice for seven days. The effects of L. edodes extract on serum transaminases (SGOT, SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin were measured in the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxic mice. L. edodes extract produced significant (p < 0.05) hepatoprotective effects by decreasing the activity of serum enzymes and bilirubin. Conclusions: From these results, it was suggested that L. edodes extract could perhaps protect liver cells from paracetamol-induced liver damage by its antioxidative effect on hepatocytes, hence diminishing or eliminating the harmful effects of toxic metabolites of paracetamol. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Properties of European Cranberrybush Fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule)
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4467-4477; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064467
Received: 5 May 2010 / Revised: 22 June 2010 / Accepted: 22 June 2010 / Published: 23 June 2010
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (103 KB)
Abstract
In the literature there is little available information concerning European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule). This plant can be cultivated, even in harsh climatic conditions, because of its low environmental demands, and it is possible to harvest the fruit even
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In the literature there is little available information concerning European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule). This plant can be cultivated, even in harsh climatic conditions, because of its low environmental demands, and it is possible to harvest the fruit even in the snow cover. The aim of this study was to determine the content of polyphenolics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids and vitamin C in the fruit of three cultivars ´Leningradskaya otbornaya´, ´Souzga´ and ´Taezny rubiny´ of this species. In the case of polyphenolics, high contents [up to 8.29 g of gallic acid/kg of fresh mass (FM)] were observed. The 1,1´-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2´-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzthiazino-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) tests were applied to determine antioxidant activity, which was also high in comparison with other fruit species. The corresponding correlations between the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity were in case of the DPPH test r2 = 0.88 and for the ABTS test r2 = 0.98. For comparison, the scavenging activity towards reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide) was determined by using a 25% fruit extract of particular cultivars. Antioxidant efficiency was also assessed using the rat liver slice model. Furthermore, the contents of flavonoids and vitamin C were assayed, giving values of 4.89 g/kg and 1.64 g/kg FM, respectively. The work should contribute to the popularization of this species as a promising crop plant in human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle HPLC and Anti-Inflammatory Studies of the Flavonoid Rich Chloroform Extract Fraction of Orthosiphon Stamineus Leaves
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4452-4466; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064452
Received: 13 April 2010 / Accepted: 4 May 2010 / Published: 21 June 2010
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (237 KB)
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to verify the anti-inflammatory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extracts and to identify the active compound(s) contributing to its anti-inflammatory activity using a developed HPLC method. Active chloroform extract of O. stamineus was fractionated into three
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The aim of the present study was to verify the anti-inflammatory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extracts and to identify the active compound(s) contributing to its anti-inflammatory activity using a developed HPLC method. Active chloroform extract of O. stamineus was fractionated into three fractions using a dry flash column chromatography method. These three fractions were investigated for anti-peritoneal capillary permeability, in vitro nitric oxide scavenging activity, anti-inflammatory and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema method. The flavonoid rich chloroform extract fraction (CF2) [containing sinensetin (2.86% w/w), eupatorin (5.05% w/w) and 3’-hydroxy-5,6,7,4’-tetramethoxyflavone (1.101% w/w)], significantly reduced rat hind paw edema, NO and decreased dye leakage to peritoneal cavity at p < 0.05. IC50 of in vitro NO scavenging of CF2 was 0.3 mg/mL. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of these CF2 may possibly be due to the presence of flavonoid compounds capable of affecting the NO pathway. Full article
Open AccessEditorial Continued Growth of the Impact Factors of MDPI Open Access Journals
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4450-4451; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064450
Received: 18 June 2010 / Published: 21 June 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (62 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We are pleased to report the continued increase of the Impact Factors of MDPI journals in 2009 (see Table 1 and Figure 1). As noted in a similar Editorial published in June 2009, the Impact Factors of MDPI journals have been steadily recovering
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We are pleased to report the continued increase of the Impact Factors of MDPI journals in 2009 (see Table 1 and Figure 1). As noted in a similar Editorial published in June 2009, the Impact Factors of MDPI journals have been steadily recovering since the inception of the full Open Access publishing policy in early 2007 [1]. We are pleased to see that all journals now have an Impact Factor much higher than 1. In 2011 the Journal Citation Report (JCR) will include the first official Impact Factor of Entropy , and in 2012, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health will be included for the first time. Nevertheless, we are already able to compute a preliminary impact factor of approximately 1.4 for Entropy [2]. [...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Synthesis of Glycyrrhetinic Acid Derivatives Containing A Nitrogen Heterocycle and Their Antiproliferative Effects in Human Leukemia Cells
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4439-4449; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064439
Received: 4 May 2010 / Revised: 11 June 2010 / Accepted: 17 June 2010 / Published: 21 June 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (274 KB)
Abstract
Fifteen novel glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives containing a nitrogen heterocycle at C-30 and with different A-ring substituents were designed and synthesized. All of these derivatives have improved antiproliferative effects against human HL-60 leukemia cells. Compounds with a cyano-enone functionality on the A-ring exhibit greater
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Fifteen novel glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives containing a nitrogen heterocycle at C-30 and with different A-ring substituents were designed and synthesized. All of these derivatives have improved antiproliferative effects against human HL-60 leukemia cells. Compounds with a cyano-enone functionality on the A-ring exhibit greater growth inhibitory effects, compared to those with a 2-hydroxymethylene-3-keto, an isoxazole, or a 2-cyano-3-keto group. N-(2-cyano-3,11-dioxoolean-1,12-dien-30-yl)-4-piperidyl piperidine (9b) was found to be two-fold more potent than methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxooleana-1,12- dien-30-oate(CDODO-Me-11). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of 2-(2-Aminopyrimidine)-2,2-difluoroethanols as Potential Bioisosters of Salicylidene Acylhydrazides
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4423-4438; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064423
Received: 19 May 2010 / Revised: 11 June 2010 / Accepted: 17 June 2010 / Published: 21 June 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (234 KB)
Abstract
Salicylidene acylhydrazides are inhibitors of type III secretion in several Gram-negative pathogens. To further develop the salicylidene acylhydrazides, scaffold hopping was applied to replace the core fragment of the compounds. The novel 2-(2-amino-pyrimidine)-2,2-difluoroethanol scaffold was identified as a possible analog to the salicylidene
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Salicylidene acylhydrazides are inhibitors of type III secretion in several Gram-negative pathogens. To further develop the salicylidene acylhydrazides, scaffold hopping was applied to replace the core fragment of the compounds. The novel 2-(2-amino-pyrimidine)-2,2-difluoroethanol scaffold was identified as a possible analog to the salicylidene acylhydrazide core structure. The synthesis of a library of 2-(2-amino-pyrimidine)-2,2-difluoro-ethanols is described in this paper. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of 2- and 7- Substituted C19 Steroids Having a 1,4,6-Triene or 1,4-Diene Structure and Their Cytotoxic Effects on T47D and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4408-4422; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064408
Received: 25 May 2010 / Revised: 12 June 2010 / Accepted: 17 June 2010 / Published: 21 June 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2863 KB)
Abstract
2-Chloro-, 2-bromo- and 2-azido-1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-diones were synthesized from 1α,2α-epoxy-4,6-androstadiene-3,17-dione (2) using HCl, HBr and NaN3, respectively. Compound 2 was also reacted with NaCN to give 2-cyano-1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (5) and 2β-cyano-1α-hydroxy-4,6-androstadiene-3,17-dione (6). 6α,7α-Epoxy-1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (8) was reacted
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2-Chloro-, 2-bromo- and 2-azido-1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-diones were synthesized from 1α,2α-epoxy-4,6-androstadiene-3,17-dione (2) using HCl, HBr and NaN3, respectively. Compound 2 was also reacted with NaCN to give 2-cyano-1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (5) and 2β-cyano-1α-hydroxy-4,6-androstadiene-3,17-dione (6). 6α,7α-Epoxy-1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (8) was reacted with HCl, HBr and NaN3 to form the corresponding 7β-chloro-, 7β-bromo- and 7β-azido-6α-hydroxy-1,4-androstadiene-3,17-diones. The cytotoxic activity of these compounds towards T47D (estrogen-dependent) and MDA-MB231 (estrogen-independent) breast cancer cell lines was evaluated. The 6α-hydroxy-7β-substituted analogs were more active than the 2-substituted analogs on both cell lines. Compound 2 showed the highest selective activity against the T47D (IC50 7.1 μM) cell line and 5 showed good cytotoxic activity on MDA-MB231 (IC50 18.5 μM) cell line, respectively. The 6α,7α-epoxy analog 8 also showed high cytotoxic activity on both cell lines (IC50 17.3 μM on T47D and IC50 26.9 μM on MDA-MB231). Full article
Open AccessCommunication Preparation and Physicochemical Properties of the Complex of Naringenin with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4401-4407; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064401
Received: 5 May 2010 / Revised: 7 June 2010 / Accepted: 9 June 2010 / Published: 18 June 2010
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (270 KB)
Abstract
In this study a complex of naringenin with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was prepared to improve the hydrophilicity of naringenin. The physicochemical properties of the complex were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV), infrared spectrometry (IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The result showed
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In this study a complex of naringenin with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was prepared to improve the hydrophilicity of naringenin. The physicochemical properties of the complex were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV), infrared spectrometry (IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The result showed that naringenin had been molecularly dispersed in the HP-β-CD matrix, not forming a new compound and HPLC analysis showed that the solubility of naringenin in water was enhanced from 4.38 μg/mL to 1,272.31 μg/mL. Full article
Open AccessArticle Lead Generation and Optimization Based on Protein-Ligand Complementarity
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4382-4400; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064382
Received: 24 May 2010 / Accepted: 7 June 2010 / Published: 17 June 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1576 KB)
Abstract
This work proposes a computational procedure for structure-based lead generation and optimization, which relies on the complementarity of the protein-ligand interactions. This procedure takes as input the known structure of a protein-ligand complex. Retaining the positions of the ligand heavy atoms in the
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This work proposes a computational procedure for structure-based lead generation and optimization, which relies on the complementarity of the protein-ligand interactions. This procedure takes as input the known structure of a protein-ligand complex. Retaining the positions of the ligand heavy atoms in the protein binding site it designs structurally similar compounds considering all possible combinations of atomic species (N, C, O, CH3, NH,etc). Compounds are ranked based on a score which incorporates energetic contributions evaluated using molecular mechanics force fields. This procedure was used to design new inhibitor molecules for three serine/threonine protein kinases (p38 MAP kinase, p42 MAP kinase (ERK2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3)). For each enzyme, the calculations produce a set of potential inhibitors whose scores are in agreement with IC50 data and Ki values. Furthermore, the native ligands for each protein target, scored within the five top-ranking compounds predicted by our method, one of the top-ranking compounds predicted to inhibit JNK3 was synthesized and his inhibitory activity confirmed against ATP hydrolysis. Our computational procedure is therefore deemed to be a useful tool for generating chemically diverse molecules active against known target proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure-Based Drug Design)
Open AccessArticle MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins with Potent Antioxidant Activity from the Leaf, Stem Bark and Root Bark of Acacia confusa
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4369-4381; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064369
Received: 26 May 2010 / Revised: 10 June 2010 / Accepted: 12 June 2010 / Published: 15 June 2010
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (276 KB)
Abstract
The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant
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The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, and the leaf condensed tannins include propelargonidin, procyanidin and prodelphinidin, all with the procyanidin dominating. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to undecamers for leaf and root bark and to dodecamers for stem bark. The condensed tannins extracted from the leaf, stem bark and root bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power. Full article
Open AccessArticle β-Enamino Esters in Heterocyclic Synthesis: Synthesis of Pyrazolone and Pyridinone Derivatives
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4359-4368; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064359
Received: 22 April 2010 / Revised: 22 May 2010 / Accepted: 26 May 2010 / Published: 15 June 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (157 KB)
Abstract
An efficient and convenient synthesis of pyrrolidinones and pyridinones utilizing enamino esters as starting material has been described. The structures of the compounds obtained were confirmed by spectral and elemental analyses. Full article
Open AccessReview Photochemical Oxidative Cyclisation of Stilbenes and Stilbenoids—The Mallory-Reaction
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4334-4358; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064334
Received: 2 April 2010 / Revised: 21 May 2010 / Accepted: 9 June 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Cited by 103 | PDF Full-text (294 KB)
Abstract
After Mallory described in 1964 the use of iodine as catalyst for the photochemical cyclisation of stilbenes, this reaction has proven its effectiveness in the synthesis of phenanthrenes, other PAHs and phenacenes with a surprisingly large selection of substituents. The “early age” of
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After Mallory described in 1964 the use of iodine as catalyst for the photochemical cyclisation of stilbenes, this reaction has proven its effectiveness in the synthesis of phenanthrenes, other PAHs and phenacenes with a surprisingly large selection of substituents. The “early age” of the reaction was reviewed by Mallory in 1984in a huge chapter in the Organic Reactions series, but the development has continued. Alternative conditions accommodate more sensitive substituents, and isomers can be favoured by sacrificial substituents. Herein the further developments and applications of this reaction after 1984 are discussed and summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photochemistry in Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activities, Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Content in Two Varieties of Malaysia Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4324-4333; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064324
Received: 18 April 2010 / Revised: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 24 May 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Cited by 173 | PDF Full-text (134 KB)
Abstract
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves’ inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale. Full article
Open AccessArticle Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4309-4323; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064309
Received: 28 April 2010 / Revised: 9 June 2010 / Accepted: 11 June 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Cited by 63 | PDF Full-text (275 KB)
Abstract
Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus
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Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Design of Novel 4-Hydroxy-chromene-2-one Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4294-4308; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064294
Received: 23 April 2010 / Revised: 31 May 2010 / Accepted: 7 June 2010 / Published: 11 June 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (544 KB)
Abstract
This paper presents the design of novel 4-hydroxy-chromene-2 one derivatives, based on previously obtained minimal inhibitory concentration values (MICs), against twenty four microorganism cultures, Gram positive and negative bacteria and fungi. Two of our compounds, 3b (MIC range 130–500 μg/mL) and 9c (31.25–62.5
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This paper presents the design of novel 4-hydroxy-chromene-2 one derivatives, based on previously obtained minimal inhibitory concentration values (MICs), against twenty four microorganism cultures, Gram positive and negative bacteria and fungi. Two of our compounds, 3b (MIC range 130–500 μg/mL) and 9c (31.25–62.5 μg/mL), presented high potential antimicrobial activity. The compound 9c had equal activity to the standard ketoconazole (31.25 μg/mL) against M. mucedo. Enlarged resistance of S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans on the effect of potential drugs and known toxicity of coumarin antibiotics, motivated us to establish SAR and QSAR models of activity against these cultures and correlate biological activity, molecular descriptors and partial charges of functional groups to explain activity and use for the design of new compounds. The QSAR study presents essential relation of antimicrobial activity and dominant substituents, 4-hydroxy, 3-acetyl and thiazole functional groups, also confirmed through molecular docking. The result was ten new designed compounds with much improved predicted inhibition constants and average biological activity. Full article
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