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Special Issue "Macromolecules: Chemistry, Medicinal and Functional Materials"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Organic Synthesis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Elena Ivanova

Faculty of Life and Social Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Mail 31, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn 3122, Australia
E-Mail
Phone: +61 3 9214 5137
Fax: +61 3 9819 0834
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Russell Crawford

Dean, Faculty of Life and Social Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Mail 31, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn 3122, Australia
E-Mail
Phone: +61 3 9214 8573
Fax: +61 3 9214 5908

Keywords

  • polysaccharides
  • extracellular polymeric substances
  • antibacterial compound

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of New Thieno[3,2-b]thiophene Derivatives
Molecules 2012, 17(10), 12163-12171; doi:10.3390/molecules171012163
Received: 12 September 2012 / Revised: 5 October 2012 / Accepted: 12 October 2012 / Published: 16 October 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (309 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three derivatives of thieno[3,2-b]thiophene end-capped with phenyl units have been synthesized and characterized by MALDI TOF mass spectroscopy, elemental analysis, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). All compounds were prepared using Pd-catalyzed Stille or Suzuki coupling reactions. Optical measurements and
[...] Read more.
Three derivatives of thieno[3,2-b]thiophene end-capped with phenyl units have been synthesized and characterized by MALDI TOF mass spectroscopy, elemental analysis, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). All compounds were prepared using Pd-catalyzed Stille or Suzuki coupling reactions. Optical measurements and thermal analysis revealed that these compounds are promising candidates for p-type organic semiconductor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macromolecules: Chemistry, Medicinal and Functional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Artificial Self-Sufficient P450 in Reversed Micelles
Molecules 2010, 15(5), 2935-2948; doi:10.3390/molecules15052935
Received: 11 March 2010 / Revised: 14 April 2010 / Accepted: 23 April 2010 / Published: 27 April 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (508 KB)
Abstract
Cytochrome P450s are heme-containing monooxygenases that require electron transfer proteins for their catalytic activities. They prefer hydrophobic compounds as substrates and it is, therefore, desirable to perform their reactions in non-aqueous media. Reversed micelles can stably encapsulate proteins in nano-scaled water pools in
[...] Read more.
Cytochrome P450s are heme-containing monooxygenases that require electron transfer proteins for their catalytic activities. They prefer hydrophobic compounds as substrates and it is, therefore, desirable to perform their reactions in non-aqueous media. Reversed micelles can stably encapsulate proteins in nano-scaled water pools in organic solvents. However, in the reversed micellar system, when multiple proteins are involved in a reaction they can be separated into different micelles and it is then difficult to transfer electrons between proteins. We show here that an artificial self-sufficient cytochrome P450, which is an enzymatically crosslinked fusion protein composed of P450 and electron transfer proteins, showed micelle-size dependent catalytic activity in a reversed micellar system. Furthermore, the presence of thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase promoted the P450-catalyzed reaction due to cofactor regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macromolecules: Chemistry, Medicinal and Functional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of a Novel Fluorescent Sensor Bearing Dansyl Fluorophores for the Highly Selective Detection of Mercury (II) Ions
Molecules 2010, 15(3), 1798-1810; doi:10.3390/molecules15031798
Received: 1 February 2010 / Revised: 22 February 2010 / Accepted: 8 March 2010 / Published: 12 March 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (477 KB)
Abstract
A new macromolecule possessing two dansyl moieties and based on 2-[4-(2-aminoethylthio)butylthio]ethanamine was prepared as a fluorescent sensor and its mercury sensing properties toward various transition metal, alkali, and alkali earth ions were investigated. The designed compound exhibited pronounced Hg2+-selective ON-OFF type
[...] Read more.
A new macromolecule possessing two dansyl moieties and based on 2-[4-(2-aminoethylthio)butylthio]ethanamine was prepared as a fluorescent sensor and its mercury sensing properties toward various transition metal, alkali, and alkali earth ions were investigated. The designed compound exhibited pronounced Hg2+-selective ON-OFF type fluorescence switching upon binding. The new compoundprovided highly selective sensing to Hg2+ in acetonitrile-water solvent mixtures with a detection limit of 2.49 x 10-7 M or 50 ppb. The molecular modeling results indicated that ions-recognition of the sensor originated from a self assembly process of the reagentand Hg2+ to form a helical wrapping structure with the favorable electrostatic interactions of Hg2+coordinated with sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen atoms and aromatic moieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macromolecules: Chemistry, Medicinal and Functional Materials)
Open AccessArticle Polysaccharides Coatings on Medical-Grade PVC: A Probe into Surface Characteristics and the Extent of Bacterial Adhesion
Molecules 2010, 15(2), 1007-1027; doi:10.3390/molecules15021007
Received: 4 January 2010 / Revised: 22 February 2010 / Accepted: 23 February 2010 / Published: 23 February 2010
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (906 KB)
Abstract
Medical-grade polyvinyl chloride was coated by polysaccharides through a novel physicochemical approach. An initial surface activation was performed foremost via diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge plasma in air at ambient temperature and pressure. Then, radical graft copolymerization of acrylic acid through grafting-from pathway
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Medical-grade polyvinyl chloride was coated by polysaccharides through a novel physicochemical approach. An initial surface activation was performed foremost via diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge plasma in air at ambient temperature and pressure. Then, radical graft copolymerization of acrylic acid through grafting-from pathway was directed to render a well-defined brush of high density, and finally a chitosan monolayer and chitosan/pectin alternating multilayer were bound onto the functionalized surfaces. Surface characteristics were systematically investigated using several probe techniques. In vitro bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation assays indicated that a single chitosan layer was incapable of hindering the adhesion of a Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strain, while up to 30% reduction was achieved by the chitosan/pectin layered assembly. On the other hand, chitosan and chitosan/pectin multilayer could retard Escherichia coli adhesion by 50% and 20%, respectively. Furthermore, plasma treated and graft copolymerized samples were also found effective to diminish the degree of adherence of Escherichia coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macromolecules: Chemistry, Medicinal and Functional Materials)
Open AccessArticle Mechanism of Introduction of Exogenous Genes into Cultured Cells Using DEAE-Dextran-MMA Graft Copolymer as Non-Viral Gene Carrier
Molecules 2009, 14(7), 2669-2683; doi:10.3390/molecules14072669
Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised: 8 July 2009 / Accepted: 15 July 2009 / Published: 23 July 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Comparative investigations were carried out regarding the efficiency of introduction of exogenous genes into cultured cells using a cationic polysaccharide DEAE-dextran-MMA (methyl methacrylate ester) graft copolymer (2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran-methyl methacrylate graft copolymer; DDMC) as a nonviral carrier for gene introduction. The results confirmed that the
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Comparative investigations were carried out regarding the efficiency of introduction of exogenous genes into cultured cells using a cationic polysaccharide DEAE-dextran-MMA (methyl methacrylate ester) graft copolymer (2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran-methyl methacrylate graft copolymer; DDMC) as a nonviral carrier for gene introduction. The results confirmed that the gene introduction efficiency was improved with DDMC relative to DEAE-dextran. Comparative investigations were carried out using various concentrations of DDMC and DNA in the introduction of DNA encoding luciferase (pGL3 control vector; Promega) into COS-7 cells derived from African green monkey kidney cells. The complex formation reaction is thought to be directly proportional to the transformation rate, but the complex formation reaction between DDMC and DNA is significantly influenced by hydrophobic bonding strength along with hydrogen bonding strength and Coulomb forces due to the hydrophobicity of the grafted MMA sections. It is thought that the reaction is a Michaelis-Menten type complex formation reaction described by the following equation: Complex amount = K1 (DNA concentration)(DDMC concentration). In support of this equation, it was confirmed that the amount of formed complex was proportional to the RLU value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macromolecules: Chemistry, Medicinal and Functional Materials)
Open AccessArticle Electronic Structure of the Azide Group in 3¢-Azido-3¢-deoxythymidine (AZT) Compared to Small Azide Compounds
Molecules 2009, 14(7), 2656-2668; doi:10.3390/molecules14072656
Received: 29 June 2009 / Revised: 13 July 2009 / Accepted: 17 July 2009 / Published: 22 July 2009
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Theoretical calculations for some structural and electronic properties of the azide moiety in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor 3¢-azido-3¢-deoxythymidine (AZT) are reported. These properties, which include geometrical properties in three dimensional space, Hirshfeld charges, electrostatic potential (MEP), vibrational frequencies, and core and
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Theoretical calculations for some structural and electronic properties of the azide moiety in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor 3¢-azido-3¢-deoxythymidine (AZT) are reported. These properties, which include geometrical properties in three dimensional space, Hirshfeld charges, electrostatic potential (MEP), vibrational frequencies, and core and valence ionization spectra, are employed to study how the azide group is affected by the presence of a larger fragment. For this purpose, two small but important organic azides, hydrazoic acid and methyl azide, are also considered. The general features of trans Cs configuration for RNNN fragments[1] is distorted in the large AZT bio-molecule. Hirshfeld charge analysis shows charges are reallocated more evenly on azide when the donor group R is not a single atom. Infrared and photoelectron spectra reveal different aspects of the compounds. In conclusion, the electronic structural properties of the compounds depend on the specific property, the local structure and chemical environment of a species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macromolecules: Chemistry, Medicinal and Functional Materials)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of a Diamino Substituted Terphenyldivinyl Chromophore
Molecules 2009, 14(6), 2111-2117; doi:10.3390/molecules14062111
Received: 24 April 2009 / Revised: 1 June 2009 / Accepted: 3 June 2009 / Published: 10 June 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract (E,E)-1,4-bis(4'-aminostyryl)-2,5-bis(octyloxy)-benzene (6) and its derivative (E,E)-1,4-bis(4'-acetamidostyryl)-2,5-bis(octyloxy)-benzene (7) were synthesized and characterized after alkylation, bromomethylation, Horner-Emmons reaction and reduction from hydroquinone. In order to gain more molecular electronic data, HOMO and LUMO of compound 6 have been calculated by Gaussian 03 W. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macromolecules: Chemistry, Medicinal and Functional Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Processing of Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced with Polysaccharide Nanocrystals
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4111-4128; doi:10.3390/molecules15064111
Received: 12 May 2010 / Revised: 2 June 2010 / Accepted: 7 June 2010 / Published: 8 June 2010
Cited by 103 | PDF Full-text (244 KB)
Abstract
Aqueous suspensions of polysaccharide (cellulose, chitin or starch) nanocrystals can be prepared by acid hydrolysis of biomass. The main problem with their practical use is related to the homogeneous dispersion of these nanoparticles within a polymeric matrix. Water is the preferred processing medium.
[...] Read more.
Aqueous suspensions of polysaccharide (cellulose, chitin or starch) nanocrystals can be prepared by acid hydrolysis of biomass. The main problem with their practical use is related to the homogeneous dispersion of these nanoparticles within a polymeric matrix. Water is the preferred processing medium. A new and interesting way for the processing of polysaccharide nanocrystals-based nanocomposites is their transformation into a co-continuous material through long chain surface chemical modification. It involves the surface chemical modification of the nanoparticles based on the use of grafting agents bearing a reactive end group and a long compatibilizing tail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macromolecules: Chemistry, Medicinal and Functional Materials)
Open AccessReview Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation
Molecules 2009, 14(7), 2535-2554; doi:10.3390/molecules14072535
Received: 18 May 2009 / Revised: 26 June 2009 / Accepted: 1 July 2009 / Published: 13 July 2009
Cited by 262 | PDF Full-text (333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of
[...] Read more.
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of the biofilm matrix. The key functions of EPS comprise the mediation of the initial attachment of cells to different substrata and protection against environmental stress and dehydration. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. The latter has a profound impact on an array of biomedical, biotechnology and industrial fields including pharmaceutical and surgical applications, food engineering, bioremediation and biohydrometallurgy. The diverse structural variations of EPS produced by bacteria of different taxonomic lineages, together with examples of biotechnological applications, are discussed. Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macromolecules: Chemistry, Medicinal and Functional Materials)

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