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Future, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 5 articles

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15 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
Overcoming Barriers: Trajectories for a School Environment That Promotes the Participation of Adolescents with Chronic Conditions
by Ana Cerqueira, Fábio Botelho Guedes, Tania Gaspar, Emmanuelle Godeau, Celeste Simões and Margarida Gaspar de Matos
Future 2024, 2(2), 92-106; https://doi.org/10.3390/future2020008 - 17 Jun 2024
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Abstract
The characteristics of the school environment can influence students’ participation. Therefore, exploring the existing barriers to school participation and academic success of students with chronic conditions (CCs) is essential since they are a population at an increased risk for impairments and difficulties in [...] Read more.
The characteristics of the school environment can influence students’ participation. Therefore, exploring the existing barriers to school participation and academic success of students with chronic conditions (CCs) is essential since they are a population at an increased risk for impairments and difficulties in these areas. This specific study aimed to explore the personal and school-environment variables associated with the school participation of students with CCs. Additionally, it aimed to analyze the differences between (1) male and female adolescents concerning the impact of CCs on school participation and the personal and school-environment variables; and (2) adolescents with and without school participation affected by the existing CCs regarding personal and school-environment variables. This work included 1442 adolescents with CCs, 56.3% female (n = 769), with a mean age of 15.17 years (SD = 2.33), participating in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2022 study. The results showed that girls and students with school participation affected by CCs are at greater risk regarding the personal and school-environment variables under study. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis of the association between these variables and the school participation of students with CCs, a greater weight of personal variables was observed, followed by those of the school environment related to interpersonal relationships and, finally, the physical environment and safety-at-school variables. The study highlights the relevance of considering the existing barriers to school participation and academic success of students with CCs. The results also underline the importance of aligning the intervention of health and education professionals and policymakers. All of these professionals must make a joint effort to overcome existing barriers in the school context and move towards an increasingly balanced environment that promotes and protects the equal participation of all students. Full article
12 pages, 584 KiB  
Article
Psychological Health and Life Satisfaction of Portuguese Teachers
by Gina Tomé, Nuno Rodrigues and Margarida Gaspar de Matos
Future 2024, 2(2), 80-91; https://doi.org/10.3390/future2020007 - 14 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Background: In Portugal, teachers have constantly sought better working conditions in order to improve their mental health, which can result in demotivation and personal and professional exhaustion. Methods: A total of 1454 national public school teachers participated in this study, 17.4% (n = [...] Read more.
Background: In Portugal, teachers have constantly sought better working conditions in order to improve their mental health, which can result in demotivation and personal and professional exhaustion. Methods: A total of 1454 national public school teachers participated in this study, 17.4% (n = 253) male, aged between 22 and 66 years old (M = 51.4, SD = 7.5). The instrument used included questions concerning sociodemographic data (gender, years of teaching experience, age, length of service), a life satisfaction scale, WHO-5/quality of life perception, the physical and psychological symptoms scale-HBSC, depression, stress, and the anxiety scale-DASS-21. It also included questions about the school environment: relationship with the principal, and school atmosphere. Results: Four groups of teachers were created for the statistical analyses: No Life Satisfied/No Symptoms; Life Satisfied/No Symptoms; No Life Satisfied/With Symptoms; and Life Satisfied/With Symptoms. The results revealed that male teachers showed higher percentages for the following groups: No Life Satisfied/No Symptoms (χ2 = 17.223(3), p ≤ 0.001, 20.2%), Life Satisfied/No Symptoms (χ2 = 17.223(3), p ≤ 0.001, 43.3%) and No Life Satisfied/With Symptoms (χ2 = 17.223(3), p ≤ 0.001, 23.9%). Conclusions: The results made it possible to identify a profile of teachers who are more likely to develop mental health problems and psychological distress: those who have lower perceived life satisfaction and more psychological symptoms, which are associated with a low perception of quality of life, a worse relationship with principals and a worse perception of the quality of the school environment; this situation seems to be even worse among female teachers. Full article
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13 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
Self-Esteem and Resilience in Adolescence: Differences between Bystander Roles and Their Implications in School Violence in Spain
by Alba González Moreno and María del Mar Molero Jurado
Future 2024, 2(2), 67-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/future2020006 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 272
Abstract
School violence is a social problem that has an impact on the psychological well-being of adolescents. One of the least identified roles within school violence is that of bystander, which refers to students who witness acts of violence perpetrated by their peers in [...] Read more.
School violence is a social problem that has an impact on the psychological well-being of adolescents. One of the least identified roles within school violence is that of bystander, which refers to students who witness acts of violence perpetrated by their peers in the school environment. Current scientific evidence determines that young people with high self-esteem and resilience tend to have better mental health. The aim of this research is to identify the role of being a bystander of school violence on self-esteem and resilience in this crucial developmental stage of adolescence. The sample is composed of a total of 730 adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years. The results obtained indicate that young people who perceive themselves as non-bystanders of school violence show higher levels of self-esteem. As for the differences according to sex, it was found that non-bystander boys have greater resilience and self-esteem compared to girls. There are negative correlations between a healthy lifestyle and stress, but positive correlations between healthy lifestyle and self-esteem. In addition, we wanted to investigate the likelihood that observant adolescents intervene to help their peers. The results show that resilience acts as a protective factor that encourages such intervention, while self-esteem would be a risk factor. These findings highlight the importance of promoting resilience and self-esteem in school settings to improve peer relationships and foster healthy youth development. Full article
11 pages, 258 KiB  
Review
Outcome Measures of Clinical Trials in Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease
by Ziyun Liang, Guohua He, Liyuan Tao, Xuhui Zhong, Tianxin Lin, Xiaoyun Jiang and Jie Ding
Future 2024, 2(2), 56-66; https://doi.org/10.3390/future2020005 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 1455
Abstract
Clinical trials of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children have important implications for the early identification and management of CKD. The selection of clinical trial outcomes is critical for assessing the effectiveness of interventions in pediatric CKD clinical trials. This review systematically examines [...] Read more.
Clinical trials of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children have important implications for the early identification and management of CKD. The selection of clinical trial outcomes is critical for assessing the effectiveness of interventions in pediatric CKD clinical trials. This review systematically examines the spectrum of outcome measures deployed in pediatric CKD clinical trials, which includes clinical and alternative outcomes, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), and safety indicators. Alternative outcome measures were stratified into four levels of evidence strength: convincing, probable, suggestive, and inconclusive. Consequently, the selection of outcome measures for pediatric CKD clinical trials mandates careful consideration of both their methodological feasibility and the robustness of their evidence base. Moreover, the burgeoning field of PROMs warrants integration into the design of future pediatric clinical trials to enrich the relevance and impact of research findings. Full article
10 pages, 785 KiB  
Case Report
Supporting Functional Goals in Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Case Report of The Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) Approach
by Stephanie Taylor, Iona Novak and Michelle Jackman
Future 2024, 2(2), 46-55; https://doi.org/10.3390/future2020004 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are now living longer as a result of advancements in pharmaceutical and medical interventions. There is a paucity of research regarding therapeutic interventions to support this population to be independent and participate in life activities that are [...] Read more.
Children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are now living longer as a result of advancements in pharmaceutical and medical interventions. There is a paucity of research regarding therapeutic interventions to support this population to be independent and participate in life activities that are most important to them. The aim of this case report is to explore the use of the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach to support a child with SMA type 1 to achieve their functional and participation goals. This is a retrospective case study. A 7-year-old girl with SMA type 1 received ten 1 h sessions of CO-OP, weekly in the home and community settings with a physiotherapist. Clinically meaningful improvements were found in goal performance and satisfaction on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS). Despite the progressive nature of SMA, the CO-OP approach was able to support goal attainment. Given medical advances are leading to a longer life span for children with neuromuscular conditions, further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of functional and participation-based interventions, including impact on quality of life and self-efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Physical Activity and Health)
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