# Challenges and Solutions for Engineering Applications on Smartphones

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Mobile Application Concept

## 3. State of the Art

#### 3.1. Building Information Modeling (BIM)

#### 3.2. Augmented Reality (AR)

#### 3.3. Data Acquisition of Projects

#### 3.4. Measurement and Data Collection

#### 3.5. Computer-aided Design

#### 3.6. Computer-aided Manufacturing (CAM)

#### 3.7. Discussion about Engineering Smartphone Applications

## 4. Challenges

#### 4.1. Optimizing Space Memory

#### 4.1.1. User Graphical Interface

#### 4.1.2. Data Management for Input/Output

#### 4.2. Scientific Calculations

#### 4.2.1. Memory Cost of Algorithms

#### 4.2.2. Precision of Algorithms

#### 4.3. Removal of Dependency on Programming Languages

## 5. Case Study: Engineering Application for Systems Control

#### 5.1. Concept

#### 5.2. Proposed Solution

#### 5.2.1. Challenge: Optimizing Space Memory for User Graphical Interface

#### 5.2.2. Challenge: Removal of Dependency on Programming Languages

#### 5.3. Application

## 6. Case Study: Engineering Application for Composite Materials

#### 6.1. Concept

#### 6.2. Proposed Solution

#### 6.2.1. Optimizing Space Memory for I/O Data Management

#### 6.2.2. Challenge: Removal of Dependency on Programming Languages

#### 6.3. Application

## 7. Case Study: Engineering Application for Finite Element Method

#### 7.1. Concept

#### 7.2. Proposed Solution

#### 7.2.1. Optimizing Memory Costs for Scientific Calculations

#### 7.2.2. Challenge: Precision of Algorithms in Scientific Calculations

_{x}= width of the rectangular structure

_{y}= height of the rectangular structure

_{x}= number of divisions on the x-axis

_{y}= number of divisions on the y-axis

#### 7.3. Application

- Step 1: Discretizing the domain—this step involves subdividing the domain into elements and nodes;
- Step 2: Writing the element stiffness matrix—the element stiffness equations need to be written for each element in the domain;
- Step 3: Assembling the global stiffness matrix—this will be done using the direct stiffness approach;
- Step 4: Applying the boundary conditions—like supports, applied loads and displacements;
- Step 5: Solving the linear equations [A] [X] = [B];
- Step 6: Post-processing—to obtain the reactions, element forces and stresses.

## 8. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Smartphone and desktop sales (in millions). This figure was adapted from [3].

**Figure 2.**Mobile application architecture. This figure was adapted from [9].

**Figure 3.**VisualLive smartphone application [18].

**Figure 4.**Medical CAD application [28].

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Khoury, A.; Kaddaha, M.A.; Saade, M.; Younes, R.; Outbib, R.; Lafon, P.
Challenges and Solutions for Engineering Applications on Smartphones. *Software* **2023**, *2*, 350-376.
https://doi.org/10.3390/software2030017

**AMA Style**

Khoury A, Kaddaha MA, Saade M, Younes R, Outbib R, Lafon P.
Challenges and Solutions for Engineering Applications on Smartphones. *Software*. 2023; 2(3):350-376.
https://doi.org/10.3390/software2030017

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Khoury, Anthony, Mohamad Abbas Kaddaha, Maya Saade, Rafic Younes, Rachid Outbib, and Pascal Lafon.
2023. "Challenges and Solutions for Engineering Applications on Smartphones" *Software* 2, no. 3: 350-376.
https://doi.org/10.3390/software2030017