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Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Replacement with p-Coumaric Acid: A Green Alternative in Wine Industry †

Christina Sakarikou
Constantinos Giaginis
Zacharoula Kokonozi
Nikolaos Vakirtzis
Dimitrios Krassos
Yorgos Kotseridis
3 and
Georgios K. Vasios
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, 81400 Lemnos, Greece
Limnos Wines, Cooperative of Limnos, 81400 Lemnos, Greece
Laboratory of Enology & Alcoholic Drings (LEAD), Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, School of the Food Science and Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the 2nd International Electronic Conference on Foods—Future Foods and Food Technologies for a Sustainable World, 15–30 October 2021; Available online:
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 89;
Published: 13 October 2021


Introduction: Sulfur dioxide has been traditionally used in winemaking as an effective preservative even though it often has negative taste- and health-related effects on consumers, particularly when used in excess. Furthermore, it can induce both SO2-related resistance and SO2-related viable but not culturable (VBNC) states in different wine yeast and bacteria species. Currently, the replacement of sulfur dioxide with plant-derived compounds, used as food bio-preservatives, has been proposed in winemaking at the laboratory scale as a green and healthier alternative. Purpose: To replace sulfur dioxide with p-coumaric acid, a plant-derived phenolic compound, in winemaking on an industrial scale in order to produce a safe, natural wine that is more sustainable, authentic and healthier. Methods: Both sulfur dioxide- and p-coumaric acid-treated wine was made in parallel at a winery on an industrial scale (into two 10,000 L stainless steel tanks) using the same quantity of the same grape variety (10,000 kg of Lemnos Island organic white wine grapes, Muscat of Alexandria) during the harvest of 2019 and following the same oenological procedures. The influence of p-coumaric acid on wine properties and quality was compared with that of sulfur dioxide under the same conditions after 3 months of storage in a bottle. To this end, several analytical parameters of wine related to oenological, microbiological, antioxidant, sensory and safety properties were determined according to the International Standards Organization (ISO) and International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) official analytical methods for both wine samples. Results: In general, there were no significant differences observed in stability, microbiological, antioxidant and oenological profiles due to sulfur dioxide replacement with p-coumaric acid, while the sensory profile was slightly ameliorated. Significance: This replacement technology resulted in a suitable green alternative to sulfur dioxide and could be easily applied to the wine industry in order to guarantee high-quality green products.

Supplementary Materials

The following supporting information can be downloaded at:, Figure S1: Stability profile; Figure S2: Sensory profile; Table S1: Oenological & antioxidant profile; Table S2: Microbiological profile.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, C.S.; methodology C.S. and N.V.; software, C.S. and Z.K.; validation, C.S., N.V., and Y.K.; formal analysis, C.S. and Z.K.; investigation, C.S.; resources, C.S., D.K. and N.V.; data curation, C.S., N.V. and Y.K.; writing-original draft preparation, C.S.; writing-review and editing, C.S.; visualization, C.S.; supervision, G.K.V., C.G.; project administration, C.S., D.K., N.V.; funding acquisition, C.S. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Data is contained within the supplementary materials.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakarikou, C.; Giaginis, C.; Kokonozi, Z.; Vakirtzis, N.; Krassos, D.; Kotseridis, Y.; Vasios, G.K. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Replacement with p-Coumaric Acid: A Green Alternative in Wine Industry. Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6, 89.

AMA Style

Sakarikou C, Giaginis C, Kokonozi Z, Vakirtzis N, Krassos D, Kotseridis Y, Vasios GK. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Replacement with p-Coumaric Acid: A Green Alternative in Wine Industry. Biology and Life Sciences Forum. 2021; 6(1):89.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakarikou, Christina, Constantinos Giaginis, Zacharoula Kokonozi, Nikolaos Vakirtzis, Dimitrios Krassos, Yorgos Kotseridis, and Georgios K. Vasios. 2021. "Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Replacement with p-Coumaric Acid: A Green Alternative in Wine Industry" Biology and Life Sciences Forum 6, no. 1: 89.

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