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Temporal Evolution of the Cyanobacterial Infestation of the Lalla Takerkoust Dam Revealed by Landsat Satellite Imagery †

Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, Av. Prince My Abdellah, P.O. Box 2390, Marrakech 40000, Morocco
Department of Plankton and Microbial Ecology, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, 16775 Stechlin, Germany
Natural Resources Engineering and Environmental Impacts Team, Multidisciplinary Research and Innovation Laboratory, Polydisciplinary Faculty of Khouribga, Sultan Moulay Slimane University of Beni Mellal, B.P. 145, Khouribga 25000, Morocco
CIIMAR—Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos S/N, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, Potsdam University, 14469 Potsdam, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the 7th Iberian Congress on Cyanotoxins/3rd Iberoamerican Congress on Cyanotoxins, Ponta Delgada, Portugal, 18–20 July 2022.
Presenting author (poster).
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 14(1), 9;
Published: 18 July 2022


The Lalla Takerkoust dam in Morocco experiences episodes of cyanobacterial blooms every year. The variation trend of cyanobacterial blooms in this lake was studied. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), derived from Landsat observations, combined with cyanotoxins, reported in the dam for more than 30 years, from 1990 to 2020, was used to provide a quantified history of the infestation dynamics of the dam water used for crop irrigation and drinking water production. The results showed that the vegetation indices fluctuated significantly over time (Kendall test p < 0.001). Summer and autumn were the main seasons for the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms, with higher cyanotoxin concentrations in autumn than in summer, with 159.67 μg/L in November 2020 and 4.79 μg/L in October 2019, respectively. On the other hand, other parameters related to climate change were analyzed to explain the differences in NDVI values over the years. The variation of temperature, quality of the chromatic spectrum, and precipitation seem to contribute to the variation of the NDVI and, consequently, the infestation of algal bloom in the lake. Indeed, in 2010, a year where rainfall was 333.57 mm and the average temperature in October was 18.81 C, we recorded a PAR of 102.84 W·m−2 with UVA of 11.51 W·m−2 and UVB of 0.25 W·m−2. During this year, NDVI was highest by 0.28, and biomass toxicology was highest at 11.5 mg MCLR·g−1 DW. Ultimately, this study is the first in Morocco that traces a temporal evolution by satellite imaging of the history of the Takerkoust dam infestation. It will allow an awareness of the effects of climate change on the quality of this freshwater resource.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, R.M., E.M.R., F.E.K., M.H. and B.O.; methodology and experiments, F.E.K., R.M., M.H. and E.M.R.; software, R.M.; validation, B.O., F.E.K. and H.-P.G.; formal analysis, R.M.; investigation, E.M.R. and R.M.; resources, H.-P.G., F.E.K., B.O. and M.H.; data curation, R.M.; writing—original draft preparation, R.M.; writing—review and editing, R.M., V.V., F.E.K., H.-P.G. and B.O.; visualization, R.M.; supervision, B.O., F.E.K. and H.-P.G.; project administration, A.C.; funding acquisition, A.C., V.V. and B.O. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Marie Skłodowska-Curie TOXICROP grant agreement number 823860. The author also received a one-year Research Scholarship in Germany for Doctoral Candidates financed by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) for 2021/22 under the number 57552339. The authors would like to thank the Laboratory of Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), the Interdisciplinary Center for Marine, Environmental Research (CIIMAR) of the University of Porto (Portugal), and the Leibniz Institute for Freshwater and Inland Fisheries Ecology, Plankton and Microbial Ecology (Neuglobsow, Germany) for their scientific and technical support of this work.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Data used here can be publicly accessed on (accessed on 26 January 2022) Lalla Takerkoust dam Morocco.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mugani, R.; Redouane, E.M.; Haida, M.; El Khalloufi, F.; Campos, A.; Vasconcelos, V.; Grossart, H.-P.; Oudra, B. Temporal Evolution of the Cyanobacterial Infestation of the Lalla Takerkoust Dam Revealed by Landsat Satellite Imagery. Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 14, 9.

AMA Style

Mugani R, Redouane EM, Haida M, El Khalloufi F, Campos A, Vasconcelos V, Grossart H-P, Oudra B. Temporal Evolution of the Cyanobacterial Infestation of the Lalla Takerkoust Dam Revealed by Landsat Satellite Imagery. Biology and Life Sciences Forum. 2022; 14(1):9.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mugani, Richard, El Mahdi Redouane, Mohammed Haida, Fatima El Khalloufi, Alexandre Campos, Vítor Vasconcelos, Hans-Peter Grossart, and Brahim Oudra. 2022. "Temporal Evolution of the Cyanobacterial Infestation of the Lalla Takerkoust Dam Revealed by Landsat Satellite Imagery" Biology and Life Sciences Forum 14, no. 1: 9.

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