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Article

Repeat Sequence Mapping Shows Different W Chromosome Evolutionary Pathways in Two Caprimulgiformes Families

1
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas (PPGCB), Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel 97300-000, RS, Brazil
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Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular (PPGBM), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91509-900, RS, Brazil
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Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos 13565-905, SP, Brazil
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Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém 66075-110, PA, Brazil
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Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos e Citogenética, SAMAM, Instituto Evandro Chagas, Ananindeua 67013-000, PA, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Birds 2020, 1(1), 19-34; https://doi.org/10.3390/birds1010004
Received: 16 November 2020 / Revised: 8 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Birds 2021)
Cytogenetic studies in Caprimulgiformes species are scarce; however, they have shown some interesting karyotype features, such as variation in the size of the W chromosome, which is usually small, like in the Scissor-tailed Nightjar (Hydropsalis torquata), but shows an uncommon larger size in the Common Potoo (Nyctibius griseus). Hence, in order to answer why two bird species from close families have different W chromosome sizes, and what caused the enlargement of the Common Potoo’s W chromosome, we used classical and molecular cytogenetic approaches aiming to investigate their chromosome organization, with an emphasis on the sex chromosomes, and comparing the structural variation and repeat content in the karyotype using C-banding, G-banding and mapping of repetitive DNAs by fluorescent in situ hybridization (microsatellite repeats and 18S rDNA). Our finding revealed a much higher content of repetitive sequences in the W chromosome of the Common Potoo in comparison to the Scissor-tailed Nightjar, which can explain the difference in W chromosome size.
Although birds belonging to order Caprimulgiformes show extensive karyotype variation, data concerning their genomic organization is still scarce, as most studies have presented only results obtained from conventional staining analyses. Nevertheless, some interesting findings have been observed, such as the W chromosome of the Common Potoo, Nyctibius griseus (2n = 86), which has the same morphology and size of the Z chromosome, a rare feature in Neognathae birds. Hence, we aimed to investigate the process by which the W chromosome of this species was enlarged. For that, we analyzed comparatively the chromosome organization of the Common Potoo and the Scissor-tailed Nightjar, Hydropsalis torquata (2n = 74), which presents the regular differentiated sex chromosomes, by applying C-banding, G-banding and mapping of repetitive DNAs (microsatellite repeats and 18S rDNA). Our results showed an accumulation of constitutive heterochromatin in the W chromosome of both species. However, 9 out of 11 microsatellite sequences hybridized in the large W chromosome in the Common Potoo, while none of them hybridized in the W chromosome of the Scissor-tailed Nightjar. Therefore, we can conclude that the accumulation of microsatellite sequences, and consequent increase in constitutive heterochromatin, was responsible for the enlargement of the W chromosome in the Common Potoo. Based on these results, we conclude that even though these two species belong to the same order, their W chromosomes have gone through different evolutionary histories, with an extra step of accumulation of repetitive sequences in the Common Potoo. View Full-Text
Keywords: bird evolution; Caprimulgiformes; sex chromosome evolution; FISH bird evolution; Caprimulgiformes; sex chromosome evolution; FISH
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Souza, M.S.; Kretschmer, R.; Barcellos, S.A.; Costa, A.L.; Cioffi, M.d.B.; de Oliveira, E.H.C.; Garnero, A.D.V.; Gunski, R.J. Repeat Sequence Mapping Shows Different W Chromosome Evolutionary Pathways in Two Caprimulgiformes Families. Birds 2020, 1, 19-34. https://doi.org/10.3390/birds1010004

AMA Style

de Souza MS, Kretschmer R, Barcellos SA, Costa AL, Cioffi MdB, de Oliveira EHC, Garnero ADV, Gunski RJ. Repeat Sequence Mapping Shows Different W Chromosome Evolutionary Pathways in Two Caprimulgiformes Families. Birds. 2020; 1(1):19-34. https://doi.org/10.3390/birds1010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Souza, Marcelo Santos, Rafael Kretschmer, Suziane Alves Barcellos, Alice Lemos Costa, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa de Oliveira, Analía Del Valle Garnero, and Ricardo José Gunski. 2020. "Repeat Sequence Mapping Shows Different W Chromosome Evolutionary Pathways in Two Caprimulgiformes Families" Birds 1, no. 1: 19-34. https://doi.org/10.3390/birds1010004

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