Have International Sanctions Impacted Iran’s Environment?
2. Research Objective and Scope
- This study does not examine if economic sanctions are effective in reaching their short-term and long-term design objectives. The discussion on the effectiveness of sanctions in altering Iran’s behavior in comparison with alternatives such as war and diplomacy is not the subject of this study.
- This study does not argue if economic sanctions against Iran must be lifted, continued, or tightened based on their environmental impacts. Such an argument requires a more comprehensive assessment of sanctions and is outside of the scope of this study. Impacts on the environment are among the several categories of the sanctions’ impacts. Making a judgement about the overall effectiveness of sanctions and their collateral damages must rely on simultaneous consideration of the impacts of sanctions on different sectors and their trade-offs.
- This study does not seek to determine which one of the parties to the sanction, i.e., the sanctioning states—sanctioner(s)—or the sanctioned state—sanctionee—is more liable for the environmental damages. Rather it argues that environmental damages have been unavoidable based on the current economic sanction practices and mechanisms.
- This study does not investigate the human rights implications of the environmental impacts of economic sanctions while acknowledging that human rights and the environment are interlinked and noting the fact that enjoying human rights without access to a safe, clean, and healthy environment is impossible [46,47].
- Iran’s environmental problems, reviewed in this study, have not arisen overnight, but after decades of unsustainable management based on short-sighted development policies [31,48]. Regardless of sanctions, Iran would have had major environmental problems today even in the absence of sanctions under its current environmental governance schemes.
- Economic sanctions have accelerated environmental degradation but must not be recognized as the main driver of the country’s short-sighted development policies, lack of determination to address its environmental problems, and prioritization of ideological objectives over sustainable development. Accordingly, the findings of this study must not be used for apologetic interpretations of the wrong decisions made by the Iranian decision makers and their environmental outcomes over the last decades.
- Iran sanctions have been evolving in terms of strength and scope. The impacts of sanctions accumulate and normally appear in the long run. The sanctioners and sanctionee, i.e., Iran, have been continuously revising their strategies for minimizing and maximizing the impacts of sanctions, respectively. Appreciating the evolving nature of the Iran sanctions problem and understanding the dynamics of the economic sanction enforcement-response games are necessary when interpreting the study findings. The analysis cannot determine how changes in sanction schemes, responses to sanctions, circumstances, or courses of actions in the past could have changed the status of the environment and the effectiveness of sanctions.
- Equating statistical correlations to causations in exploring the impacts of Iran sanctions can lead to very misleading conclusions. For example, an increase in the number polluted days in Tehran in a particular year cannot necessarily be attributed to the presence or absence of sanctions, as the number of polluted days can depend on other variables such as wind, precipitation, and temperature changes during the year. To be able to properly explain observations and identify the underlying causal mechanisms of the problem, one must be familiar with the historical and technical context, as well as the involved complexities.
3. State of the Environment in Iran: Did Sanctions Cause Iran’s Environmental Problems?
4. The Environmental Impacts of Sanctions
4.1. Restricting Access to Technology, Service, and Know-How
- Completely disregarding its need to acquire specific GTKSFor example, the South Pars refineries use a specific type of absorbent for mercury removal from natural gas. The manufacturers of this type of absorbent, such as Johnson Matthey (JM) and Axens, have refused to sell it to Iran. As a result, mercury is not being properly removed from natural gas, damaging the environment (with major public health implications) both at the production point (refineries) as well as the consumption points (houses, offices, schools, hospitals, factories, etc., (indoor and outdoor)).In some industries, the companies that have sold equipment to Iran in the past are reluctant to provide spare parts and the needed service (repair, operation, inspection, and maintenance). Many companies that had long-term contracts for providing various technical services (e.g., software updates, operation optimization, new knowledge delivery, training, instrumentation, and inspection) have suspended their contracts and stopped their service under sanctions without any penalty to their service buyers. These issues have resulted in Iran’s restricted access to the best available technology and know-how, subsequently reducing the resource use efficiency and increasing the ecological footprints of different sectors in the country.Numerous examples of this kind have occurred in the vehicle manufacturing and transportation industry with major environmental implications in terms of emissions. Major Iranian car manufacturers have continuously postponed of the adoption of the Euro 5 emission standard while blaming sanctions as the cause of their limited access to required technologies. In 2018, the Construction and Transportation Commission of the Tehran’s City Council suspended the budget for installing diesel particulate filters (DPFs) on the 700 old buses (defined as buses that are more than 8 years old) used by the Tehran Bus Company (a subsidiary of Tehran Municipality, which is overseen by the Islamic City Council of Tehran) for public transport. (More than half of about 6000 buses used by the Tehran Bus Company run on diesel. The average age of the company’s bus fleet is 11 years old. More than half of the buses belong to the “old” category. By 2023, almost 90% the company’s bus fleet will be “old” if there is no fleet retrofit). In 2019, upon the request of Iran Khodro Company (one of the major vehicle manufacturers in Iran and the Middle East), Senior Vice President Eshaq Jahangiri ordered the Minister of Industry, Mines, and Business and the Head of Iran’s Department of Environment to waive the requirement for installing diesel particulate filters on diesel trucks under the sanctions (Figure 1). These decisions, made under the economic sanctions, have a direct impact on the level of air pollution with significant socio-economic, health, and environmental implications.In addition to the limited and costly access to DPFs under sanctions, it has been argued that the diesel produced in Iran does not meet the required quality standards, making DPFs dysfunctional and redundant. This argument has been rejected by Iran’s Department of Environment. Nevertheless, even if the argument is valid, sanctions have been introduced as the major obstacle to improving the quality of the fuels produced in Iran. Therefore, regardless of the validity of the claim, one can conclude that the economic sanctions have directly impacted air quality in Tehran (as a catalyst that has intensified air pollution).
- Settling for cheaper but lower quality (e.g., used, outdated/not state-of-the art, and not meeting environmental quality standards) GTKS provided by foreign or domestic suppliersFor example, after the re-imposition of US sanctions in 2018, Siemens refused to ship the syngas compressors it had produced for the Zanjan Fertilizer Project (ZFP) under an old purchase agreement in fear of targeted retaliation from the US. Indeed, Siemens did not risk losing its 20 billion USD a year revenue (about 20% of its global sales) in the United States where it employs about 50,000 workers  to make a very small revenue in Iran (similarly, many other companies with a strong presence in the US have refused to do business with Iran, in fear of losing their share from the US market). ZFP ended up purchasing Chinese compressors with lower environmental standards, leading to higher emissions.Similar stories have occurred in Iran’s methanol industry. Iran has the potential to become one of the leading producers of methanol. Yet, its access to state-of-the-art technologies has been cut by the sanctions. JM and Haldor Topsoe have refused to provide autothermal reforming technology (ATR) to the Eslamabad-e Gharb refinery in Iran. Thus, Iran is in the process of launching this refinery using older technologies, leading to higher water use and carbon footprints (in 2020, Iran’s neighbor, Turkmenistan, successfully operationalized the world’s largest ATR-based methanol plant with the help of Haldor Topsoe ). In another methanol project in south Iran, the international licensor of the project, Haldor Topsoe, did not respect its contractual obligations after the re-imposition of sanctions and refused to deliver three critical equipment parts. These parts were subsequently replaced by their Iranian alternatives that did not meet the environmental standards specified in the Process Design Package (PDP) and approved by the original licensor.In 2006, INPEX Corporation, Japan’s largest oil and gas exploration and production company, pulled out of the oil extraction project in the Iranian part of Hoor Al-Azim, a major transboundary wetland in southwestern Iran, overlying large oil fields. The implementation of the project was pursued and completed by Chinese and Iranian companies. Yet, the original design specifications that were suitable for oil drilling in wetlands (wet environments) were not pursued. The implemented project and installed oil rig and equipment that are in operation today are suitable for dry environments. As a result, not only was the wetland area kept dry during the implementation of the project, but also releasing large volumes of water into some parts of this highly manipulated wetland (both Iran and Iraq have substantially modified the natural conditions of the Hoor Al-Azim wetland by installing a series of dikes, culvers, and roads) has become prohibitive given the damages it can cause to the installed equipment. The drying up of Hoor Al-Azim reduced the implementation cost of the project under sanctions, but in the long run, it has caused significant ecosystem damage and turned the wetland into a major dust source in the region, affecting the lives and health of people in the Khuzestan Province during long episodes of dust storms that have been unprecedented in the region.In 2010, when the economic sanctions on Iran’s gasoline imports were signed into law, Iran was importing 40% of its gasoline. President Barack Obama had projected that penalizing Iran’s gasoline suppliers and increasing pressure on the international banking system to stop working with Iran would make it harder for the country to buy refined petroleum and the required goods and services to modernize its oil and gas sector, the backbone of its economy . This projection was somewhat correct. Iran’s petrol imports dropped by 75% , but Iran immediately responded to the new sanctions by increasing its local refining capacity, producing lethal, but cheap, petroleum that could run vehicle engines but was highly destructive to the environment. Iran’s locally produced petroleum at the time contained 10 times the level of contaminants compared to imported fuel and the sulfur level in diesel gas sold in Tehran was 8000 parts per million (ppm) [144,145], 800 times greater than the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. Similar to the other examples above, Iran tried to withstand the sanctions’ pressure on the oil and natural gas sectors by making choices that had major costs for the environment but could help the country survive in the short run.In some cases, relying on domestic GTKS delivery is not necessarily more economically effective for the sanctionee, but it can help reduce the national insecurity risks. For example, while domestic wheat production can be costlier than importing wheat, the fear of sanctioned food access and national security problems might justify the continuation of conventional and inefficient domestic food production for the country leaders. Given the tensions and international conflicts that Iran has experienced since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, food security has been a significant public policy agenda for the country’s leaders. The experiences of other under sanction countries and observing their vulnerability to food import reductions have turned food insecurity into a major phobia. As a result, Iran has seriously pursued the ambitious goal of self-sufficiency in food production [31,33]. This policy has had major negative impacts on the country’s water and environment. Despite these impacts, the country leaders consider this policy a necessity given their national security concerns that drastically intensified under sanctions and extreme international pressure. (Creating job opportunities has been another motivator for expanding the agricultural sector. The dependency of a significant portion of the country’s population on the agricultural sector for their jobs  creates another national security concern as reducing the size of this sector could cause unemployment for the weaker economic groups of the society). Although food export to Iran is supposedly free of sanctions and importing at least part of the needed food can decrease the economic and environmental costs of food production for Iran, the country sees food-dependency as a major vulnerability that can be targeted by its enemies and by sanctions. Similarly, sanctions have promoted self-sufficiency and minimal international dependency policies in other sectors (e.g., car manufacturing, gasoline, and pharmaceuticals) despite their long-term environmental costs for the country.
4.2. Blocking Interntional Aid for the Environment
4.3. Increasing the Natural Resource-Intensity of Iran’s Economy
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Madani, K. How International Economic Sanctions Harm the Environment. Earths Future 2020, 8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dizaji, S.F. The Effects of Oil Shocks on Government Expenditures and Government Revenues Nexus in Iran (as a Developing Oil-Export Based Economy); ISS Working Papers—General Series 540; International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS): The Hague, The Netherlands, 2012; pp. 1–41. [Google Scholar]
- Gordon, C. Crippling Iran: The UN Security Council and the Tactic of Deliberate Ambiguity. Georget. J. Int. Law 2013, 44, 973–1006. [Google Scholar]
- Farzanegan, M.R.; Mohammadikhabbazan, M.; Sadeghi, H. Effect of Oil Sanctions on the Macroeconomic and Household Welfare in Iran: New Evidence from a CGE Model; MAGKS Papers on Economics; Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung): Marburg, Germany, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Marzban, H.; Ostadzad, A.H. The Impact of Economic Sanctions on Gross Domestic Product and Social Welfare for Iran: Generalized Stochastic Growth Model. Iran. J. Econ. Res. 2015, 20, 37–69. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Neuenkirch, M.; Neumeier, F. The Impact of US Sanctions on Poverty. J. Dev. Econ. 2016, 121, 110–119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Peksen, D. Better or Worse? The Effect of Economic Sanctions on Human Rights. J. Peace Res. 2009, 46, 59–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Butler, D. Iran Hit by Drug Shortage. Nat. News 2013, 504, 15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- CHRI—Center for Human Rights in Iran. A Growing Crisis, The Impact of Sanctions and Regime Policies on Iranians’ Economic and Social Rights; CHRI: New York, NY, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Palaniappa, S. Sanctions Without Humanitarian Implications—An Impossible Feat. Honors in the Master Thesis (HIM) 1990–2015, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Mohammadi, D. US-Led Economic Sanctions Strangle Iran’s Drug Supply. Lancet 2013, 381, 279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Moret, E.S. Humanitarian Impacts of Economic Sanctions on Iran and Syria. Eur. Secur. 2015, 24, 120–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shahabi, S.; Fazlalizadeh, H.; Stedman, J.; Chuang, L.; Shariftabrizi, A.; Ram, R. The Impact of International Economic Sanctions on Iranian Cancer Healthcare. Health Policy 2015, 119, 1309–1318. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Habibzadeh, F. Economic Sanction: A Weapon of Mass Destruction. Lancet 2018, 392, 816–817. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Kokabisaghi, F. Assessment of the Effects of Economic Sanctions on Iranians’ Right to Health by Using Human Rights Impact Assessment Tool: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Health Policy Manag. 2018, 7, 374–393. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Takian, A.; Raoofi, A.; Kazempour-Ardebili, S. COVID-19 Battle during the Toughest Sanctions against Iran. Lancet 2020, 395, 1035–1036. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Soroush, N.; Madani, K. Every Breath You Take: The Environmental Consequences of Iran Sanctions; The Guardian: London, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Carucci, A. Environmental Effects of Economic Sanctions: The Cuban Experience. Honors Thesis, Colby College, Waterville, ME, USA, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- UNICEF. Annual Report 2012 for Iran (Islamic Republic of)-MENA; UNICEF: New York, NY, USA, 2012.
- Lewis, T.; Madani, K. End of Sanctions May Help Iran Face an Accelerating Environmental Crisis; The Guardian: London, UK, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Jowkar, H.; Ostrowski, S.; Tahbaz, M.; Zahler, P. The Conservation of Biodiversity in Iran: Threats, Challenges and Hopes. Iran. Stud. 2016, 49, 1065–1077. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Portela, C. Are European Union Sanctions “Targeted”? Camb. Rev. Int. Aff. 2016, 29, 912–929. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Samore, G. Sanctions Against Iran: A Guide to Targets, Terms, and Timetables; Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Katzman, K. Iran Sanctions; Congressional Research Service: Washington, DC, USA, 2021.
- Baradaran-Seyed, Z.; Majdzadeh, R. Economic Sanctions Strangle Iranians’ Health, Not Just Drug Supply. Lancet 2013, 381, 1626. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Economic Sanctions Have Tangible Consequences for Average Iranians; PBS NewsHour: New York, NY, USA, 2014.
- UNICEF. Country Office Annual Report 2018; UNICEF: New York, NY, USA, 2018.
- Danaei, G.; Farzadfar, F.; Kelishadi, R.; Rashidian, A.; Rouhani, O.M.; Ahmadnia, S.; Ahmadvand, A.; Arabi, M.; Ardalan, A.; Arhami, M.; et al. Iran in Transition. Lancet 2019, 393, 1984–2005. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Six Charts That Show How Hard US Sanctions Have Hit Iran; BBC News: London, UK, 2019.
- Dizaji, S.F.; van Bergeijk, P.A.G. Potential Early Phase Success and Ultimate Failure of Economic Sanctions: A VAR Approach with an Application to Iran. J. Peace Res. 2013, 50, 721–736. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Madani, K. Water Management in Iran: What Is Causing the Looming Crisis? J. Environ. Stud. Sci. 2014, 4, 315–328. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Amiraslani, F.; Dragovich, D. Combating Desertification in Iran over the Last 50 Years: An Overview of Changing Approaches. J. Environ. Manag. 2011, 92, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Madani, K.; AghaKouchak, A.; Mirchi, A. Iran’s Socio-Economic Drought: Challenges of a Water-Bankrupt Nation. Iran. Stud. 2016, 49, 997–1016. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yazdandoost, F. Dams, Drought and Water Shortage in Today’s Iran. Iran. Stud. 2016, 49, 1017–1028. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mirchi, A.; Madani, K. Iran’s Leaders React to the Nation’s Massive Environmental Challenge; The Guardian: London, UK, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Amanat, A. Environment and Culture: An Introduction. Iran. Stud. 2016, 49, 925–941. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ravilious, K. Tehran’s Drastic Sinking Exposed by Satellite Data. Nature 2018, 564, 17–18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Mirchi, A.; Madani, K. How Iran’s Elections Are Going Green; The Guardian: London, UK, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Madani, K. Radicals Running Riot. New Sci. 2018, 240, 24–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Blind Sanctions against Iran Negatively Affect Environment; IRNA Islamic Republic News Agency: Tehran, Iran, 2013.
- Karami, A. Rouhani: Saving Environment Starts with Sanctions Removal; Al-Monitor: Washington, DC, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Iran Front Page. US Sanctions on Iran Harm Environment: VP; Iran Front Page: Tehran, Iran, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Iranian Environment Has Suffered from Sanctions: Kalantari; Tehran Times: Tehran, Iran, 2019.
- Madani, K.; Hakim, S. Iran: Reversing the Environmental Damages of Sanctions; Tehran Times: Tehran, Iran, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Fotourehchi, Z. Are UN and US Economic Sanctions a Cause or Cure for the Environment: Empirical Evidence from Iran. Environ. Dev. Sustain. 2020, 22, 5483–5501. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Knox, J.H. Report of the Independent Expert on the Issue of Human Rights Obligations Relating to the Enjoyment of a Safe, Clean, Healthy and Sustainable Environment; Twenty-Second Session, General Assembly of the United Nations; Human Rights Council: Geneva, Switzerland, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Knox, J.H. Report of the Independent Expert on the Issue of Human Rights Obligations Relating to the Enjoyment of a Safe, Clean, Healthy and Sustainable Environment; Thirty-Seventh Session, General Assembly of the United Nations; Human Rights Council: Geneva, Switzerland, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Madani, K. Iran’s Imprisoned Conservationists Need Scientists to Speak Up; New Scientist: London, UK, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Liu, J.; Dietz, T.; Carpenter, S.R.; Alberti, M.; Folke, C.; Moran, E.; Pell, A.N.; Deadman, P.; Kratz, T.; Lubchenco, J.; et al. Complexity of Coupled Human and Natural Systems. Science 2007, 317, 1513–1516. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Madani, K.; Shafiee-Jood, M. Socio-Hydrology: A New Understanding to Unite or a New Science to Divide? Water 2020, 12, 1941. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Liu, J.; Dietz, T.; Carpenter, S.R.; Folke, C.; Alberti, M.; Redman, C.L.; Schneider, S.H.; Ostrom, E.; Pell, A.N.; Lubchenco, J.; et al. Coupled Human and Natural Systems. AMBIO J. Hum. Environ. 2007, 36, 639–649. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Madani Larijani, K. Iran’s Water Crisis; Inducers, Challenges and Counter-Measures. In Proceedings of the 45th Congress of the European Regional Science Association: “Land Use and Water Management in a Sustainable Network Society”, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 23–27 August 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Maghrebi, M.; Noori, R.; Bhattarai, R.; Yaseen, Z.M.; Tang, Q.; Al-Ansari, N.; Mehr, A.D.; Karbassi, A.; Omidvar, J.; Farnoush, H.; et al. Iran’s Agriculture in the Anthropocene. Earths Future 2020, 8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Moshir Panahi, D.; Kalantari, Z.; Ghajarnia, N.; Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, S.; Destouni, G. Variability and Change in the Hydro-Climate and Water Resources of Iran over a Recent 30-Year Period. Sci. Rep. 2020, 10, 7450. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mirnezami, S.J.; de Boer, C.; Bagheri, A. Groundwater Governance and Implementing the Conservation Policy: The Case Study of Rafsanjan Plain in Iran. Environ. Dev. Sustain. 2020, 22, 8183–8210. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sharifi, A.; Mirchi, A.; Pirmoradian, R.; Mirabbasi, R.; Tourian, M.J.; Haghighi, A.T.; Madani, K. Battling Water Limits to Growth: Lessons from Water Trends in the Central Plateau of Iran. Environ. Manag. 2021. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mirnezami, S.J.; Bagheri, A.; Maleki, A. Inaction of Society on the Drawdown of Groundwater Resources: A Case Study of Rafsanjan Plain in Iran. Water Altern. 2018, 11, 725–748. [Google Scholar]
- Naderi, M.M.; Mirchi, A.; Bavani, A.R.M.; Goharian, E.; Madani, K. System Dynamics Simulation of Regional Water Supply and Demand Using a Food-Energy-Water Nexus Approach: Application to Qazvin Plain, Iran. J. Environ. Manag. 2021, 280, 111843. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Madani Larijani, K. Watershed Management and Sustainability—A System Dynamics Approach (Case Study: Zayandeh-Rud River Basin, Iran). Master’s Thesis, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Gohari, A.; Eslamian, S.; Mirchi, A.; Abedi-Koupaei, J.; Massah Bavani, A.; Madani, K. Water Transfer as a Solution to Water Shortage: A Fix That Can Backfire. J. Hydrol. 2013, 491, 23–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mirchi, A.; Madani, K. A Grand but Faulty Vision for Iran’s Water Problems; The Guardian: London, UK, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Mirzaei, A.; Saghafian, B.; Mirchi, A.; Madani, K. The Groundwater–Energy–Food Nexus in Iran’s Agricultural Sector: Implications for Water Security. Water 2019, 11, 1835. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Nabavi, E. Failed Policies, Falling Aquifers: Unpacking Groundwater Overabstraction in Iran. Water Altern. 2018, 11, 699–724. [Google Scholar]
- Mirchi, A.; Madani, K.; AghaKouchak, A. Lake Urmia: How Iran’s Most Famous Lake Is Disappearing; The Guardian: London, UK, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- AghaKouchak, A.; Norouzi, H.; Madani, K.; Mirchi, A.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Nazemi, A.; Nasrollahi, N.; Farahmand, A.; Mehran, A.; Hasanzadeh, E. Aral Sea Syndrome Desiccates Lake Urmia: Call for Action. J. Great Lakes Res. 2015, 41, 307–311. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Khazaei, B.; Khatami, S.; Alemohammad, S.H.; Rashidi, L.; Wu, C.; Madani, K.; Kalantari, Z.; Destouni, G.; Aghakouchak, A. Climatic or Regionally Induced by Humans? Tracing Hydro-Climatic and Land-Use Changes to Better Understand the Lake Urmia Tragedy. J. Hydrol. 2019, 569, 203–217. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sima, S.; Rosenberg, D.E.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.; Null, S.E.; Kettenring, K.M. Managing Lake Urmia, Iran for Diverse Restoration Objectives: Moving beyond a Uniform Target Lake Level. J. Hydrol. Reg. Stud. 2021, 35, 100812. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alborzi, A.; Mirchi, A.; Moftakhari, H.; Mallakpour, I.; Alian, S.; Nazemi, A.; Hassanzadeh, E.; Mazdiyasni, O.; Ashraf, S.; Madani, K.; et al. Climate-Informed Environmental Inflows to Revive a Drying Lake Facing Meteorological and Anthropogenic Droughts. Environ. Res. Lett. 2018, 13, 084010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alizade Govarchin Ghale, Y.; Baykara, M.; Unal, A. Investigating the Interaction between Agricultural Lands and Urmia Lake Ecosystem Using Remote Sensing Techniques and Hydro-Climatic Data Analysis. Agric. Water Manag. 2019, 221, 566–579. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fallah, M.; Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, R. Assessment of Water Quality in Iran’s Anzali Wetland, Using Qualitative Indices from 1985, 2007, and 2014. Wetl. Ecol. Manag. 2017, 25, 597–605. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mahmoodabadi, M.; Rezaei Arshad, R. Long-Term Evaluation of Water Quality Parameters of the Karoun River Using a Regression Approach and the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2018, 126, 372–380. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Noori, R.; Berndtsson, R.; Franklin Adamowski, J.; Rabiee Abyaneh, M. Temporal and Depth Variation of Water Quality Due to Thermal Stratification in Karkheh Reservoir, Iran. J. Hydrol. Reg. Stud. 2018, 19, 279–286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- ALabdeh, D.; Karbassi, A.R.; Omidvar, B.; Sarang, A. Speciation of Metals and Metalloids in Anzali Wetland, Iran. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 17, 1411–1424. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Najafi Saleh, H.; Valipoor, S.; Zarei, A.; Yousefi, M.; Baghal Asghari, F.; Mohammadi, A.A.; Amiri, F.; Ghalehaskar, S.; Mousavi Khaneghah, A. Assessment of Groundwater Quality around Municipal Solid Waste Landfill by Using Water Quality Index for Groundwater Resources and Multivariate Statistical Technique: A Case Study of the Landfill Site, Qaem Shahr City, Iran. Environ. Geochem. Health 2020, 42, 1305–1319. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sadat-Noori, S.M.; Ebrahimi, K.; Liaghat, A.M. Groundwater Quality Assessment Using the Water Quality Index and GIS in Saveh-Nobaran Aquifer, Iran. Environ. Earth Sci. 2014, 71, 3827–3843. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hosseinifard, S.J.; Mirzaei Aminiyan, M. Hydrochemical Characterization of Groundwater Quality for Drinking and Agricultural Purposes: A Case Study in Rafsanjan Plain, Iran. Water Qual. Expo. Health 2015, 7, 531–544. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Barzegar, R.; Asghari Moghaddam, A.; Tziritis, E. Assessing the Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality of the Aji-Chay River, Northwest of Iran. Environ. Earth Sci. 2016, 75, 1486. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Modabberi, A.; Noori, R.; Madani, K.; Ehsani, A.H.; Danandeh Mehr, A.; Hooshyaripor, F.; Kløve, B. Caspian Sea Is Eutrophying: The Alarming Message of Satellite Data. Environ. Res. Lett. 2020, 15, 124047. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shahrban, M.; Etemad-Shahidi, A. Classification of the Caspian Sea Coastal Waters Based on Trophic Index and Numerical Analysis. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2010, 164, 349–356. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hamzeh, M.A.; Shah-hosseini, M.; Naderi Beni, A. Effect of Fishing Vessels on Trace Metal Contamination in Sediments of Three Harbors along Iranian Oman Sea Coast. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2013, 185, 1791–1807. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bayani, N. Ecology and Environmental Challenges of the Persian Gulf. Iran. Stud. 2016, 49, 1047–1063. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ranjbar Jafarabadi, A.; Riyahi Bakhtiyari, A.; Shadmehri Toosi, A.; Jadot, C. Spatial Distribution, Ecological and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Marine Surface Sediments and Coastal Seawaters of Fringing Coral Reefs of the Persian Gulf, Iran. Chemosphere 2017, 185, 1090–1111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pejman, A.; Nabi Bidhendi, G.; Ardestani, M.; Saeedi, M.; Baghvand, A. Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Sediments and Assessment of Their Availability Risk: A Case Study in the Northwestern of Persian Gulf. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2017, 114, 881–887. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sadeghi, P.; Loghmani, M.; Afsa, E. Trace Element Concentrations, Ecological and Health Risk Assessment in Sediment and Marine Fish Otolithes Ruber in Oman Sea, Iran. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2019, 140, 248–254. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Henareh Khalyani, A.; Mayer, A.L. Spatial and Temporal Deforestation Dynamics of Zagros Forests (Iran) from 1972 to 2009. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2013, 117, 1–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Karimi, N.; Golian, S.; Karimi, D. Monitoring Deforestation in Iran, Jangal-Abr Forest Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Images and Spectral Mixture Analysis Method. Arab. J. Geosci. 2016, 9, 214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shirvani, Z.; Abdi, O.; Buchroithner, M.F.; Pradhan, B. Analysing Spatial and Statistical Dependencies of Deforestation Affected by Residential Growth: Gorganrood Basin, Northeast Iran. Land Degrad. Dev. 2017, 28, 2176–2190. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Golchin, A.; Asgari, H. Land Use Effects on Soil Quality Indicators in North-Eastern Iran. Aust. J. Soil Res. 2008, 46, 27–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nabiollahi, K.; Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, R.; Kerry, R.; Moradian, S. Assessment of Soil Quality Indices for Salt-Affected Agricultural Land in Kurdistan Province, Iran. Ecol. Indic. 2017, 83, 482–494. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hamidi Nehrani, S.; Askari, M.S.; Saadat, S.; Delavar, M.A.; Taheri, M.; Holden, N.M. Quantification of Soil Quality under Semi-Arid Agriculture in the Northwest of Iran. Ecol. Indic. 2020, 108, 105770. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mesgaran, M.B.; Madani, K.; Hashemi, H.; Azadi, P. Iran’s Land Suitability for Agriculture. Sci. Rep. 2017, 7, 7670. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Rashki, A.; Arjmand, M.; Kaskaoutis, D.G. Assessment of Dust Activity and Dust-Plume Pathways over Jazmurian Basin, Southeast Iran. Aeolian Res. 2017, 24, 145–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ashraf, B.; AghaKouchak, A.; Alizadeh, A.; Mousavi Baygi, M.; Moftakhari, H.R.; Mirchi, A.; Anjileli, H.; Madani, K. Quantifying Anthropogenic Stress on Groundwater Resources. Sci. Rep. 2017, 7, 12910. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Motagh, M.; Walter, T.R.; Sharifi, M.A.; Fielding, E.; Schenk, A.; Anderssohn, J.; Zschau, J. Land Subsidence in Iran Caused by Widespread Water Reservoir Overexploitation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2008, 35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Motagh, M.; Shamshiri, R.; Haghshenas Haghighi, M.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Akbari, B.; Nahavandchi, H.; Roessner, S.; Arabi, S. Quantifying Groundwater Exploitation Induced Subsidence in the Rafsanjan Plain, Southeastern Iran, Using InSAR Time-Series and in Situ Measurements. Eng. Geol. 2017, 218, 134–151. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Heidari, M.; Khanlari, G.R.; Taleb Beydokhti, A.R.; Momeni, A.A. The Formation of Cover Collapse Sinkholes in North of Hamedan, Iran. Geomorphology 2011, 132, 76–86. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Taheri, K.; Gutiérrez, F.; Mohseni, H.; Raeisi, E.; Taheri, M. Sinkhole Susceptibility Mapping Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Magnitude–Frequency Relationships: A Case Study in Hamadan Province, Iran. Geomorphology 2015, 234, 64–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Amighpey, M.; Arabi, S. Studying Land Subsidence in Yazd Province, Iran, by Integration of InSAR and Levelling Measurements. Remote Sens. Appl. Soc. Environ. 2016, 4, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mahmoudpour, M.; Khamehchiyan, M.; Nikudel, M.R.; Ghassemi, M.R. Numerical Simulation and Prediction of Regional Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in the Southwest Plain of Tehran, Iran. Eng. Geol. 2016, 201, 6–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Atash, F. The Deterioration of Urban Environments in Developing Countries: Mitigating the Air Pollution Crisis in Tehran, Iran. Cities 2007, 24, 399–409. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hosseini, V.; Shahbazi, H. Urban Air Pollution in Iran. Iran. Stud. 2016, 49, 1029–1046. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Miri, M.; Derakhshan, Z.; Allahabadi, A.; Ahmadi, E.; Oliveri Conti, G.; Ferrante, M.; Aval, H.E. Mortality and Morbidity Due to Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution in Mashhad Metropolis, Iran. The AirQ Model Approach. Environ. Res. 2016, 151, 451–457. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barzeghar, V.; Sarbakhsh, P.; Hassanvand, M.S.; Faridi, S.; Gholampour, A. Long-Term Trend of Ambient Air PM10, PM2.5, and O3 and Their Health Effects in Tabriz City, Iran, during 2006–2017. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2020, 54, 101988. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Heger, M.; Sarraf, N. Air Pollution in Tehran: Health Costs, Sources, and Policies; Environment and Natural Resources Global Practice Discussion Paper; World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Miri, A.; Ahmadi, H.; Ekhtesasi, M.R.; Panjehkeh, N.; Ghanbari, A. Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts of Dust Storms in Sistan Region, Iran. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 2009, 66, 343–355. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rashki, A.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Rautenbach, C.J.D.W.; Eriksson, P.G.; Qiang, M.; Gupta, P. Dust Storms and Their Horizontal Dust Loading in the Sistan Region, Iran. Aeolian Res. 2012, 5, 51–62. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rezazadeh, M.; Irannejad, P.; Shao, Y. Climatology of the Middle East Dust Events. Aeolian Res. 2013, 10, 103–109. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cao, H.; Liu, J.; Wang, G.; Yang, G.; Luo, L. Identification of Sand and Dust Storm Source Areas in Iran. J. Arid Land 2015, 7, 567–578. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hakim, S.; Madani, K. The Rise and Fall of Iran’s Khuzestan: A Calamity of International Significance; Atlantic Council: Washington, DC, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Daniali, M.; Karimi, N. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Dust Patterns over Mesopotamia and Their Impact on Khuzestan Province, Iran. Nat. Hazards 2019, 97, 259–281. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Javadian, M.; Behrangi, A.; Sorooshian, A. Impact of Drought on Dust Storms: Case Study over Southwest Iran. Environ. Res. Lett. 2019, 14, 124029. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vidal, J.; Kamali Dehghan, S. Which Are the World’s Two Most Polluted Cities—And Why? The Guardian: London, UK, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- WHO. WHO Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database (Update 2016). Available online: http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/cities/en/ (accessed on 18 April 2021).
- Walsh, B. The 10 Most Air-polluted Cities in the World; Time: New York, NY, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Goudie, A.S. Desert Dust and Human Health Disorders. Environ. Int. 2014, 63, 101–113. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Maleki, H.; Sorooshian, A.; Goudarzi, G.; Nikfal, A.; Baneshi, M.M. Temporal Profile of PM10 and Associated Health Effects in One of the Most Polluted Cities of the World (Ahvaz, Iran) between 2009 and 2014. Aeolian Res. 2016, 22, 135–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Khaniabadi, Y.O.; Sicard, P.; Takdastan, A.; Hopke, P.K.; Taiwo, A.M.; Khaniabadi, F.O.; De Marco, A.; Daryanoosh, M. Mortality and Morbidity Due to Ambient Air Pollution in Iran. Clin. Epidemiol. Glob. Health 2019, 7, 222–227. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Karimi, B.; Shokrinezhad, B.; Samadi, S. Mortality and Hospitalizations Due to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases Associated with Air Pollution in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Atmos. Environ. 2019, 198, 438–447. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Seifi, M.; Niazi, S.; Johnson, G.; Nodehi, V.; Yunesian, M. Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Risk of Childhood Cancers: A Population-Based Study in Tehran, Iran. Sci. Total Environ. 2019, 646, 105–110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Saeedi, M.; Li, L.Y.; Salmanzadeh, M. Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Pollution and Ecological Risk Assessment in Street Dust of Tehran. J. Hazard. Mater. 2012, 227–228, 9–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Esmaeilizadeh, S.; Shaghaghi, A.; Taghipour, H. Key Informants’ Perspectives on the Challenges of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Iran: A Mixed Method Study. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. 2020, 22, 1284–1298. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Koolivand, A.; Mazandaranizadeh, H.; Binavapoor, M.; Mohammadtaheri, A.; Saeedi, R. Hazardous and Industrial Waste Composition and Associated Management Activities in Caspian Industrial Park, Iran. Environ. Nanotechnol. Monit. Manag. 2017, 7, 9–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Farzadkia, M.; Jorfi, S.; Nikzad, M.; Nazari, S. Evaluation of Industrial Wastes Management Practices: Case Study of the Savojbolagh Industrial Zone, Iran. Waste Manag. Res. 2020, 38, 44–58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Eslami, A.; Nowrouz, P.; Sheikholeslami, S. Status and Challenges of Medical Waste Management in Hospitals of Iran. Civ. Eng. J. 2017, 3, 741–748. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Torkashvand, J.; Pasalari, H.; Jonidi-Jafari, A.; Kermani, M.; Nasri, O.; Farzadkia, M. Medical Waste Management in Iran and Comparison with Neighbouring Countries. Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 2020, 1–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Daily Municipal Solid Waste Generation per Capita Worldwide in 2018, by Select Country. Available online: https://www.statista.com/statistics/689809/per-capital-msw-generation-by-country-worldwide/ (accessed on 17 April 2021).
- Farashi, A.; Shariati, M. Biodiversity Hotspots and Conservation Gaps in Iran. J. Nat. Conserv. 2017, 39, 37–57. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ashraf, S.; AghaKouchak, A.; Nazemi, A.; Mirchi, A.; Sadegh, M.; Moftakhari, H.R.; Hassanzadeh, E.; Miao, C.-Y.; Madani, K.; Mousavi Baygi, M.; et al. Compounding Effects of Human Activities and Climatic Changes on Surface Water Availability in Iran. Clim. Chang. 2019, 152, 379–391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tabari, H.; Willems, P. More Prolonged Droughts by the End of the Century in the Middle East. Environ. Res. Lett. 2018, 13, 104005. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Vaghefi, S.A.; Keykhai, M.; Jahanbakhshi, F.; Sheikholeslami, J.; Ahmadi, A.; Yang, H.; Abbaspour, K.C. The Future of Extreme Climate in Iran. Sci. Rep. 2019, 9, 1464. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Akbari Asanjan, A.; Faridzad, M.; Hayatbini, N.; Gorooh, V.A.; Sadeghi, M.; Shearer, E.J.; Sorooshian, S.; Nguyen, P.; Hsu, K.; Taghian, M. An Assessment of the Unprecedented Extreme Precipitation Events over Iran: From Satellite Perspective; University of California: Irvine, CA, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Madani, K. The Value of Extreme Events: What Doesn’t Exterminate Your Water System Makes It More Resilient. J. Hydrol. 2019, 575, 269–272. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- U.S. Lying That Sanctions Exempt Food, Medicine: Iranian Minister; Tehran Times: Tehran, Iran, 2019.
- Bernnan, D. Iran Foreign Minister Claims U.S. Sanctions Make It “Virtually Impossible” to Fight Coronavirus; Newsweek: New York, NY, USA, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Cunningham, E. As Coronavirus Cases Explode in Iran, U.S. Sanctions Hinder Its Access to Drugs and Medical Equipment; Washington Post: Washington, DC, USA, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Stone, R. Iran Confronts Coronavirus amid a ‘Battle between Science and Conspiracy Theories. Science 2020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Coronavirus: Iran and the US Trade Blame over Sanctions; BBC News: London, UK, 2020.
- U.S. Department of the Treasury Frequently Asked Questions: Iran Sanctions. Available online: https://home.treasury.gov/policy-issues/financial-sanctions/faqs/topic/1551 (accessed on 17 April 2021).
- Flicker, S.M.; Greenbacker, L.K.D.; Hutchison, T.R.; Flynn, H.S. Humanitarian Aid to Iran under Existing Sanctions–an Important Reminder in a Time of Pandemic; Paul Hastings LLP: Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Karagiannopoulos, L. Exclusive: UK’s Quercus Pulls Plug on $570 Million Iran Solar Plant as Sanctions Bite; Reuters: London, UK, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Petroff, A. Siemens CEO Says He Can’t Accept New Orders; CNN: Atlanta, GA, USA, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Burgess, M. World’s Largest ATR-Based Methanol Plant Now Operational; Gasworld: Truro, UK, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Colvin, R. Obama Says New U.S. Sanctions on Iran Toughest Ever; Reuters: London, UK, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Mawer, C. Air Pollution in Iran. BMJ 2014, 348, g1586. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ghorayshi, A. Choking to Death in Tehran; Newsweek: New York, NY, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Stone, R. Science in Iran Languishes after Trump Reimposes Sanctions. Science 2018. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Madani, K.; Nikazmrad, K. Do-It-Yourself Sanctions Threaten Science Dialogue with Iran; The Guardian: London, UK, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Seeley, M. How Sanctions Laws Affect Publishing: OFAC Provides New Guidance; Elsevier Connect: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Butler, D. How US Sanctions Are Crippling Science in Iran. Nature 2019, 574, 13–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Iran: Country-At-A-Glance. Available online: https://www.thegef.org/country/iran (accessed on 17 April 2021).
- Nguyen, S.N. Project Information Document—Iran COVID-19 Emergency Response Project; World Bank Group: Washington, DC, USA, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- IEG (Independent Evaluation Group). Iran—Northern Cities Water Supply & Sanitation Project; ICR Review; World Bank Group: Washington, DC, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- IEG (Independent Evaluation Group). Iran—Alborz Integrated Land and Water Management Project; ICR Review; World Bank Group: Washington, DC, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Financial Tribune. CIMMYT Opens Research Center in Iran; Financial Tribune: Tehran, Iran, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- CIMMYT. Suspension of CIMMYT Activities in Iran; CIMMYT: Mexico City, Mexico, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- ICARDA. Suspension of ICARDA Activities in Iran; ICARDA: Beirut, Lebanon, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- ICARDA. Enhancing Food Security in Iran; ICARDA: Beirut, Lebanon, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Reinl, J. U.S. Sanctions Imperil Aid to Iran’s Flood Victims; Inter Press Service: Rome, Italy, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Reuters. Flood-Hit Iran Getting No Financial Aid from Abroad Due to U.S. Sanctions: Statement; Reuters: London, UK, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Kebriaeezadeh, A.U.S. Sanctions Are Killing Cancer Patients in Iran; Foreign Policy: Washington, DC, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Dinda, S. Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey. Ecol. Econ. 2004, 49, 431–455. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Kaika, D.; Zervas, E. The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) Theory—Part A: Concept, Causes and the CO2 Emissions Case. Energy Policy 2013, 62, 1392–1402. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stern, D.I. Progress on the Environmental Kuznets Curve? Environ. Dev. Econ. 1998, 3, 173–196. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Madani, K. The Environment Was Once a Safe Space for Activism in Iran; No Longer; The Guardian: London, UK, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Madani, K. Why Is Iran so Paranoid about Environmentalism? Medium: San Francisco, CA, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Madani, K. Have International Sanctions Impacted Iran’s Environment? World 2021, 2, 231-252. https://doi.org/10.3390/world2020015
Madani K. Have International Sanctions Impacted Iran’s Environment? World. 2021; 2(2):231-252. https://doi.org/10.3390/world2020015Chicago/Turabian Style
Madani, Kaveh. 2021. "Have International Sanctions Impacted Iran’s Environment?" World 2, no. 2: 231-252. https://doi.org/10.3390/world2020015