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Explosives Use in Decommissioning—Guide for Assessment of Risk (EDGAR): II Determination of Sound Exposure Levels for Open Water Blasts and Severance of Conductors and Piles from below the Seabed
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Explosives Use in Decommissioning—Guide for Assessment of Risk (EDGAR): I Determination of Sound Pressure Levels for Open Water Blasts and Severance of Conductors and Piles from Below the Seabed

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School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, 23 St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU, Scotland, UK
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Manta Environmental Limited, Balmedie, Aberdeenshire AB23 8ST, Scotland, UK
Academic Editors: José Simão Antunes Do Carmo and Conceição Juana Espinosa Morais Fortes
Modelling 2021, 2(4), 514-533; https://doi.org/10.3390/modelling2040027
Received: 13 July 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 16 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean and Coastal Modelling)
A simple underwater noise model suitable for use with explosives in the decommissioning of oil and gas subsea structures is introduced and evaluated against data from five projects in the US. The performance of the model is compared to four existing models for open water blasts, and for the severance of well conductors and piles. Simulated received underwater sound pressure levels were significantly correlated with measurements for all scenarios. The maximum total error achieved between simulations and measurements was 3.5%, suggesting that predictions are accurate to within 4% of the average measurement. A low relative bias was observed in the simulations when compared to measured values, suggesting only a small systematic underestimate (≤1% of average measurement) for most severance operations and a small overestimate (1.34%) for open water blasts. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater noise modelling; decommissioning; conductor and pile severance; explosives; sound pressure level underwater noise modelling; decommissioning; conductor and pile severance; explosives; sound pressure level
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brand, A.M. Explosives Use in Decommissioning—Guide for Assessment of Risk (EDGAR): I Determination of Sound Pressure Levels for Open Water Blasts and Severance of Conductors and Piles from Below the Seabed. Modelling 2021, 2, 514-533. https://doi.org/10.3390/modelling2040027

AMA Style

Brand AM. Explosives Use in Decommissioning—Guide for Assessment of Risk (EDGAR): I Determination of Sound Pressure Levels for Open Water Blasts and Severance of Conductors and Piles from Below the Seabed. Modelling. 2021; 2(4):514-533. https://doi.org/10.3390/modelling2040027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brand, Alison M. 2021. "Explosives Use in Decommissioning—Guide for Assessment of Risk (EDGAR): I Determination of Sound Pressure Levels for Open Water Blasts and Severance of Conductors and Piles from Below the Seabed" Modelling 2, no. 4: 514-533. https://doi.org/10.3390/modelling2040027

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