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Review

Reproductive Tract Infections in Dairy Cows: Can Probiotics Curb Down the Incidence Rate?

Department of Agricultural Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2P5, Canada
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Dairy 2021, 2(1), 40-64; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2010004
Received: 8 June 2020 / Revised: 28 November 2020 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 18 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Animal Health)
Postpartum uterine diseases are common in dairy cows and are a great concern for the dairy industry as they are associated with various consequences, including lower fertility, lower milk yield, and an overall negative impact on the host health. An infected uterus is a source of bacterial compounds and cytokines that spill into the systemic circulation, spreading inflammation to other organs. In this review article, we discuss a short overview of the anatomy of the reproductive tract of dairy cows and several infectious diseases of the uterus including metritis, endometritis, and pyometra. Additionally, we discuss the microbiome of the reproductive tract in health and during uterine diseases. As well, diagnostic criteria for metritis and endometritis and contributing factors for increased susceptibility to metritis infection are important topics of this review. To better understand how the uterus and reproductive tract respond to bacterial pathogens, a section of this review is dedicated to immunity of the reproductive tract. Both the innate and adaptive immunity systems are also discussed. We conclude the review with a factual discussion about the current treatments of uterine diseases and the new developments in the area of application of probiotics for uterine health. Mechanisms of actions of probiotics are discussed in detail and also some applications to prevent uterine infections in dairy cows are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy cows; uterine infections; metritis; endometritis; pyometra; innate and adaptive immunity; probiotics dairy cows; uterine infections; metritis; endometritis; pyometra; innate and adaptive immunity; probiotics
MDPI and ACS Style

Rosales, E.B.; Ametaj, B.N. Reproductive Tract Infections in Dairy Cows: Can Probiotics Curb Down the Incidence Rate? Dairy 2021, 2, 40-64. https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2010004

AMA Style

Rosales EB, Ametaj BN. Reproductive Tract Infections in Dairy Cows: Can Probiotics Curb Down the Incidence Rate? Dairy. 2021; 2(1):40-64. https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rosales, Eduardo B., and Burim N. Ametaj. 2021. "Reproductive Tract Infections in Dairy Cows: Can Probiotics Curb Down the Incidence Rate?" Dairy 2, no. 1: 40-64. https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2010004

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