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Case Report

Emergence of Natural Killer Cell Large Granular Lymphocytes during Gilteritinib Treatment in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with FLT3-ITD Mutation

1
Department of Hematology and Oncology, Japanese Red Cross Narita Hospital, Narita 286-8523, Japan
2
Department of Hematology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8677, Japan
3
Department of Hematology and Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa 277-8577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Reports 2020, 3(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports3030025
Received: 15 August 2020 / Revised: 5 September 2020 / Accepted: 15 September 2020 / Published: 17 September 2020
As the potent, selective Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor gilteritinib has only been approved for use for a few years, its efficacy and complications remain incompletely understood. We herein report an elderly patient with FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD) mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who developed natural killer cell large granular lymphocytes (NK-LGL) in the bone marrow and peripheral blood during gilteritinib treatment. Case: A 79-year-old Japanese female had been diagnosed with FLT3-ITD-mutated AML. The patient received hydroxycarbamide 2000 mg daily for induction chemotherapy but did not achieve remission at day 28 postinduction. The treatment was then changed to gilteritinib 120 mg daily. Although the reduction of blasts in peripheral blood occurred immediately, it was revealed abnormal lymphocytes with large granules developed in bone marrow and peripheral blood. These lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry, which revealed that these cells were NK-LGL because they expressed CD2, CD7, CD16, and CD56 and did not express CD3, CD19, and CD20. The patient achieved partial remission (PR) in a month with gilteritinib treatment. Leukemia eventually could not be controlled, but PR persisted for about 4 months and leukemia was controlled for 4 months after progression disease (PD) with gilteritinib treatment alone. Conclusion: Gilteritinib may induce the NK-LGL. The exact mechanism and effect of LGL in patients with FLT3 mutated AML treated with gilteritinib warrants further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia (AML); Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD) mutation; Gilteritinib; natural killer cell large granular lymphocytes (NK-LGL) acute myeloid leukemia (AML); Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD) mutation; Gilteritinib; natural killer cell large granular lymphocytes (NK-LGL)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Izumi, S.; Minami, Y.; Masuda, S.; Utsu, Y.; Sakaida, E.; Aotsuka, N. Emergence of Natural Killer Cell Large Granular Lymphocytes during Gilteritinib Treatment in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with FLT3-ITD Mutation. Reports 2020, 3, 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/reports3030025

AMA Style

Izumi S, Minami Y, Masuda S, Utsu Y, Sakaida E, Aotsuka N. Emergence of Natural Killer Cell Large Granular Lymphocytes during Gilteritinib Treatment in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with FLT3-ITD Mutation. Reports. 2020; 3(3):25. https://doi.org/10.3390/reports3030025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Izumi, Shintaro, Yosuke Minami, Shinichi Masuda, Yoshikazu Utsu, Emiko Sakaida, and Nobuyuki Aotsuka. 2020. "Emergence of Natural Killer Cell Large Granular Lymphocytes during Gilteritinib Treatment in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with FLT3-ITD Mutation" Reports 3, no. 3: 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/reports3030025

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