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High-Throughput 2018, 7(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht7040040

Pharmacogenomic Profiling of ADME Gene Variants: Current Challenges and Validation Perspectives

1
Institute of Neurological Sciences, UOS of Pharmacology, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
2
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, Salvatore Venuta University Campus, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
3
Medical Oncology Unit, Mater Domini Hospital, Salvatore Venuta University Campus, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
4
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences Pediatric Unit, Magna Graecia University, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Microarrays in Diagnostics)
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Abstract

In the past decades, many efforts have been made to individualize medical treatments, taking into account molecular profiles and the individual genetic background. The development of molecularly targeted drugs and immunotherapy have revolutionized medical treatments but the inter-patient variability in the anti-tumor drug pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics can be explained, at least in part, by genetic variations in genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters (ADME) or in genes encoding drug receptors. Here, we focus on high-throughput technologies applied for PK screening for the identification of predictive biomarkers of efficacy or toxicity in cancer treatment, whose application in clinical practice could promote personalized treatments tailored on individual’s genetic make-up. Pharmacogenomic tools have been implemented and the clinical utility of pharmacogenetic screening could increase safety in patients for the identification of drug metabolism-related biomarkers for a personalized medicine. Although pharmacogenomic studies were performed in adult cohorts, pharmacogenetic pediatric research has yielded promising results. Additionally, we discuss the current challenges and theoretical bases for the implementation of pharmacogenetic tests for translation in the clinical practice taking into account that pharmacogenomics platforms are discovery oriented and must open the way for the setting of robust tests suitable for daily practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmacogenomics; ADME genes; cancer; single nucleotide polymorphisms pharmacogenomics; ADME genes; cancer; single nucleotide polymorphisms
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Arbitrio, M.; Di Martino, M.T.; Scionti, F.; Barbieri, V.; Pensabene, L.; Tagliaferri, P. Pharmacogenomic Profiling of ADME Gene Variants: Current Challenges and Validation Perspectives. High-Throughput 2018, 7, 40.

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