“Hi-Fi Stake” piezoelectric actuators are constructed by bonding -poled d32-mode lead-based relaxor-PT single crystals with polycarbonate edge guides into a square-pipe structure. They contract under positive-polarity applied voltage due to d32 values being negative for -poled relaxor-PT single crystals. Under quasi-static loading conditions, Hi-Fi Stake single crystal actuators exhibit highly linear displacement response with negligible hysteresis. Over the years, we have successfully developed the following three versions of Hi-Fi Stake (HFS) actuators: cost-effective (CE), large-stroke (LS) and high-load (HL), all of maximum use temperature of up to 60 °C. Of which, the LS version, of 2-level construction, displays strokes of up to 50 μm @ 240 V and the HL version, of 2-layer construction, has maximum loads allowed of 14 kg-f at room temperature and 7 kg-f at 60 °C. Additionally described in this work are the developments of Cryogenic Hi-Fi Stakes (CG-HFS) and High-Temperature Hi-Fi Stake (HT-HFS) actuators. The selection of suitable crystal compositions, recommended working conditions and measured performance of fabricated prototypes of these two new versions of Hi-Fi Stakes are presented and discussed.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited