“Hi-Fi Stake” piezoelectric actuators are constructed by bonding -poled d32
-mode lead-based relaxor-PT single crystals with polycarbonate edge guides into a square-pipe structure. They contract under positive-polarity applied voltage due to d32
values being negative for -poled relaxor-PT single crystals. Under quasi-static loading conditions, Hi-Fi Stake single crystal actuators exhibit highly linear displacement response with negligible hysteresis. Over the years, we have successfully developed the following three versions of Hi-Fi Stake (HFS) actuators: cost-effective (CE), large-stroke (LS) and high-load (HL), all of maximum use temperature of up to 60 °C. Of which, the LS version, of 2-level construction, displays strokes of up to 50 μm @ 240 V and the HL version, of 2-layer construction, has maximum loads allowed of 14 kg-f at room temperature and 7 kg-f at 60 °C. Additionally described in this work are the developments of Cryogenic Hi-Fi Stakes (CG-HFS) and High-Temperature Hi-Fi Stake (HT-HFS) actuators. The selection of suitable crystal compositions, recommended working conditions and measured performance of fabricated prototypes of these two new versions of Hi-Fi Stakes are presented and discussed.
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