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Open AccessArticle

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Schistosomiasis among Schoolchildren in two Settings of Côte d’Ivoire

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland
University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland
Unité de Formation et de Recherche Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan BPV 34, Côte d’Ivoire
IHPE, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, 66860 Perpignan, France
Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, Abidjan BPV 490, Côte d’Ivoire
Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 1303, Abidjan 01, Côte d’Ivoire
Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, 22 BP 770, Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire
Programme National de Lutte contre les Maladies Tropicales Négligées à Chimiothérapie Préventive, 06 BP 6394, Abidjan 06, Côte d’Ivoire
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(3), 110;
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 13 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
PDF [705 KB, uploaded 23 July 2019]


Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting more than 250 million people, primarily in sub-Saharan Africa. In Côte d’Ivoire both Schistosoma haematobium (causing urogenital schistosomiasis) and Schistosoma mansoni (causing intestinal schistosomiasis) co-exist. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni and to identify risk factors among schoolchildren in the western and southern parts of Côte d’Ivoire. From January to April 2018, a cross-sectional study was carried out including 1187 schoolchildren aged 5–14 years. Urine samples were examined by a filtration method to identify and count S. haematobium eggs, while stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to quantify eggs of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths. Data on sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and environmental factors were obtained using a pretested questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to test for associations between variables. We found a prevalence of S. haematobium of 14.0% (166 of 1187 schoolchildren infected) and a prevalence of S. mansoni of 6.1% (66 of 1089 schoolchildren infected). In the southern part of Côte d’Ivoire, the prevalence of S. haematobium was 16.1% with a particularly high prevalence observed in Sikensi (35.6%), while S. mansoni was most prevalent in Agboville (11.2%). Swimming in open freshwater bodies was the main risk factor for S. haematobium infection (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 127.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 25.0–634.0, p < 0.001). Fishing and washing clothes in open freshwater bodies were positively associated with S. haematobium and S. mansoni infection, respectively. Preventive chemotherapy using praziquantel should be combined with setting-specific information, education, and communication strategies in order to change children’s behavior, thus avoiding contact with unprotected open freshwater. View Full-Text
Keywords: Côte d’Ivoire; prevalence; risk factors; Schistosoma haematobium; Schistosoma mansoni; schistosomiasis Côte d’Ivoire; prevalence; risk factors; Schistosoma haematobium; Schistosoma mansoni; schistosomiasis

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Angora, E.K.; Boissier, J.; Menan, H.; Rey, O.; Tuo, K.; Touré, A.O.; Coulibaly, J.T.; Méité, A.; Raso, G.; N’Goran, E.K.; Utzinger, J.; Balmer, O. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Schistosomiasis among Schoolchildren in two Settings of Côte d’Ivoire. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4, 110.

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