2. Materials and Methods
2.1.1. Gear Designing and Final Drive Calculations
- Teeth on 1st spur gear: T1 = 60;
- Teeth on 2nd spur gear: T2 = 15;
- Teeth on 1st bevel gear: T3 = 50;
- Teeth on 2nd bevel gear: T4 = 20.
2.1.2. Operation of Design
- Rotating the handle rotates the bigger spur gear, which starts the motion. The two spur gears in contact have equal modules. The module is the ratio of the reference diameter of the gear to the number of teeth on the gear. The bigger spur gear has 60 teeth and a module of 2. Although a larger spur gear would yield a higher gear ratio, it would also increase the size of the casing and in turn the size of the whole apparatus. A spur gear with 60 teeth and a module of 1.5 modules was chosen, considering the need of the final required rotations of the rotor (N4). Meshed to the bigger spur gear is a smaller spur gear with an equal module. To mesh and rotate a set of any gears, it is necessary that both the gears should have the same profile and an equivalent module. This smaller spur gear is coupled to a larger bevel gear to eliminate the overhang and also another component required to hold the two together. The bigger bevel gear has 50 teeth and a module of 2. The bevel gear is used to transmit the motion in a perpendicular direction. A smaller bevel gear is then meshed with the large one to increase the rotations per minute of the test tubes.
- High rotational speeds of 1200–2000 rpm are required to carry out typical medical tests. Thus, this gear train is designed in such a way that, with every two rotations per second, the rotor rotates at 1200 rpm. With every 2.5 rotations per second of the handle, the rotor rotates at 1500 rpm, and with 3 rotations per second, it can do 1800 rpm. The commercial equivalent products are capable of rotating at 1800 rpm, which is equal to the rotational capability of this 3-D printed centrifuge apparatus. The speeds can be easily increased if the number of teeth on either of the bevels or spurs or both bigger gears are increased and the source code in FreeCAD (computer-aided design 3-D modeling software, www.freecadweb.org) is made available for those that need this capability.
- The dimensions of the handle are designed in such a way that it will not interfere with the rotation of the test tubes. The grip is designed to keep in mind the ergonomics of the human hand and its motion while rotating the handle. Enough grip is provided on the grip bar, which freely rotates around the centerpiece of the handle. The horizontal motion of grip is constrained by implementing a ball–socket joint at the end of the handle.
- Test tubes are placed in the test rings, which are specifically designed for standard test tubes. However, there is a wide variety of test tubes that are available on the market. All of the part files in FreeCAD are made available and open source so that others can adapt the tube holders to meet other sizes of test tubes. The test rings that hold the test tubes are locked in the rotor by using rotor snaps. These snaps can easily withstand the high centrifugal forces acting on them, as they are tightly fitted in the rotor itself. The rotor diameter is 120 mm, which is enough to generate high centrifugal force, following Equation (4).
2.1.3. Bill of Materials
|Computing Angular Velocity and Relative Centrifugal Force|
|Input: an image frame from a camera or a video sequence.|
|Output: rpm and RCF values for the test tubes.|
|while a camera is open or a video is reading do:|
|get a single frame as an RGB image;|
|crop the region of interest of the image frame;|
|apply linear filtering to blur the cropped region;|
|mask the color marker using RGB thresholds;|
|apply operations of opening and closing to remove noise after RGB masking;|
|find the contours of the masked area.|
|if the traveler marker is detected do:|
|find the centroid location of the color marker applying the method of moments;|
|calculate the radius of rotation and the angle of the centrifuge arm.|
|if the angle is in a specified zero range do:|
|increase the number of revolutions by one;|
|update timer and compute the time period for one revolution;|
|calculate the tubes’ rpm;|
|calculate the tubes’ RCF.|
2.6. Economic Analysis
Conflicts of Interest
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|Component||Quantity||Description||Image of Component|
|Part A||1||Front plate|
|Part B||1||Back plate|
|Part C||1||Bigger spur gear with locking pin|
|Part D||1||Smaller spur gear with large bevel gear|
|Part E||1||Smaller bevel gear|
|Part F||1||Clamping ring for smaller bevel gear (Part E)|
|Part G||1||Rotor for test tubes|
|Part H||1||Clamping for Part D|
|Part I||4||Rings for test tube|
|Part J||8||Snaps for rotor|
|Part K||2||Bolts for clamping body|
|Part L||2||Base clips for the bolts|
|Part M||1||Smaller bevel gear holder|
|Part O||1||Grip for handle|
|Part P||1||Locking clip for handle|
|Part Name||Predefined Settings (Layer Height)||Infill (%)|
|A||High speed (0.38 mm)||40|
|B||High speed (0.38 mm)||40|
|C||Standard (0.28 mm)||65|
|D||Standard (0.28 mm)||60|
|E||Standard (0.28 mm)||60|
|F||High speed (0.38 mm)||90|
|G||High speed (0.38 mm)||40|
|H||High speed (0.38 mm)||40|
|I||Standard (0.28 mm)||50|
|J||Standard (0.28 mm)||60|
|K||Standard (0.28 mm)||50|
|L||High speed (0.38 mm)||50|
|M||High speed (0.38 mm)||65|
|N||High speed (0.38 mm)||75|
|O||High speed (0.38 mm)||45|
|P||High speed (0.38 mm)||40|
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