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Article

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) as a Method for Biological Sex Discrimination in the Endangered Houston Toad (Anaxyrus houstonensis)

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Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology, and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39762, USA
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Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Aquaculture, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39762, USA
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Department of Ectotherms, Fort Worth Zoo, Fort Worth, TX 76110, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniel Cozzolino
Methods Protoc. 2022, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/mps5010004
Received: 1 December 2021 / Revised: 27 December 2021 / Accepted: 28 December 2021 / Published: 30 December 2021
Biological sex is one of the more critically important physiological parameters needed for managing threatened animal species because it is crucial for informing several of the management decisions surrounding conservation breeding programs. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive technology that has been recently applied in the field of wildlife science to evaluate various aspects of animal physiology and may have potential as an in vivo technique for determining biological sex in live amphibian species. This study investigated whether NIRS could be used as a rapid and non-invasive method for discriminating biological sex in the endangered Houston toad (Anaxyrus houstonensis). NIR spectra (N = 396) were collected from live A. houstonensis individuals (N = 132), and distinct spectral patterns between males and females were identified using chemometrics. Linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) classified the spectra from each biological sex with accuracy ≥ 98% in the calibration and internal validation datasets and 94% in the external validation process. Through the use of NIRS, we have determined that unique spectral signatures can be holistically captured in the skin of male and female anurans, bringing to light the possibility of further application of this technique for juveniles and sexually monomorphic species, whose sex designation is important for breeding-related decisions. View Full-Text
Keywords: amphibians; chemometrics; dimorphism; monomorphism; reflectance spectroscopy amphibians; chemometrics; dimorphism; monomorphism; reflectance spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, L.-D.; Santos-Rivera, M.; Burger, I.J.; Kouba, A.J.; Barber, D.M.; Vance, C.K. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) as a Method for Biological Sex Discrimination in the Endangered Houston Toad (Anaxyrus houstonensis). Methods Protoc. 2022, 5, 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/mps5010004

AMA Style

Chen L-D, Santos-Rivera M, Burger IJ, Kouba AJ, Barber DM, Vance CK. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) as a Method for Biological Sex Discrimination in the Endangered Houston Toad (Anaxyrus houstonensis). Methods and Protocols. 2022; 5(1):4. https://doi.org/10.3390/mps5010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Li-Dunn, Mariana Santos-Rivera, Isabella J. Burger, Andrew J. Kouba, Diane M. Barber, and Carrie K. Vance. 2022. "Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) as a Method for Biological Sex Discrimination in the Endangered Houston Toad (Anaxyrus houstonensis)" Methods and Protocols 5, no. 1: 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/mps5010004

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