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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease with Mitral Valve Prolapse and Mitral Annular Disjunction: Clinical and Functional Significance of the Coincidence

1
Cardiovasclar Center Darmstadt, 60431 Darmstadt, Germany
2
Cardiac Morphology Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London SW3 6NP, UK
3
Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8020009
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 22 January 2021 / Published: 24 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitral Valve Development and Disease)
The morphological changes that occur in myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) involve various components, ultimately leading to the impairment of mitral valve (MV) function. In this context, intrinsic mitral annular abnormalities are increasingly recognized, such as a mitral annular disjunction (MAD), a specific anatomical abnormality whereby there is a distinct separation between the mitral annulus and the left atrial wall and the basal portion of the posterolateral left ventricular myocardium. In recent years, several studies have suggested that MAD contributes to myxomatous degeneration of the mitral leaflets, and there is growing evidence that MAD is associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. In this review, the morphological characteristics of MAD and imaging tools for diagnosis will be described, and the clinical and functional aspects of the coincidence of MAD and myxomatous MVP will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitral valve; primary mitral regurgitation; myxomatous mitral valve disease; mitral valve prolapse; mitral annular disjunction; MitraClip mitral valve; primary mitral regurgitation; myxomatous mitral valve disease; mitral valve prolapse; mitral annular disjunction; MitraClip
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wunderlich, N.C.; Ho, S.Y.; Flint, N.; Siegel, R.J. Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease with Mitral Valve Prolapse and Mitral Annular Disjunction: Clinical and Functional Significance of the Coincidence. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8, 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8020009

AMA Style

Wunderlich NC, Ho SY, Flint N, Siegel RJ. Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease with Mitral Valve Prolapse and Mitral Annular Disjunction: Clinical and Functional Significance of the Coincidence. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2021; 8(2):9. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8020009

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wunderlich, Nina C.; Ho, Siew Y.; Flint, Nir; Siegel, Robert J. 2021. "Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease with Mitral Valve Prolapse and Mitral Annular Disjunction: Clinical and Functional Significance of the Coincidence" J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 8, no. 2: 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8020009

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