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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of Chlorhexidine-Loaded Calcium-Hydroxide Microparticles as a Potential Dental Pulp-Capping Material

Discipline of Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, 11 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119083, Singapore
Department of Chemistry, Myongji University, Natural Science Campus, 116 Myongji-ro, Cheoin-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 449-728, Korea
Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, The Nanos, #04-01, Singapore 138669, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frank Alexis
Bioengineering 2017, 4(3), 59;
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
This study explores the delivery of novel calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] microparticles loaded with chlorhexidine (CHX) for potential dental therapeutic and preventive applications. Herein, we introduce a new approach for drug-delivery to deep dentin-surfaces in the form of drug-loaded microparticles. Unloaded Ca(OH)2 [Ca(OH)2/Blank] and CHX-loaded/Ca(OH)2 microparticles were fabricated by aqueous chemical-precipitation technique. The synthesized-microparticles were characterized in vitro for determination of surface-morphology, crystalline-features and thermal-properties examined by energy-dispersive X-ray scanning and transmission electron-microscopy (EDX-SEM/TEM), Fourier-transform infrared-spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning-calorimetry (DSC). Time-related pH changes, initial antibacterial/biofilm-abilities and cytotoxicity of CHX-loaded/Ca(OH)2 microparticles were evaluated. Microparticles were delivered to dentin-surfaces with subsequent SEM examination of treated dentin-substrates. The in vitro and ex vivo CHX-release profiles were characterized. Ca(OH)2/Blank were hexagonal-shaped with highest z-average diameter whereas CHX-inclusion evidenced micro-metric spheres with distinguishable surface “rounded deposits” and a negative-shift in diameter. CHX:Ca(OH)2/50 mg exhibited maximum encapsulation-efficiency with good antibacterial and cytocompatible properties. SEM examination revealed an intact layer of microparticles on exposed dentin-surfaces with retention of spherical shape and smooth texture. Microparticles loaded on dentin-surfaces showed prolonged release of CHX indicating substantial retention on dentin-substrates. This study validated the inherent-applicability of this novel drug-delivery approach to dentin-surfaces using micro-metric CHX-loaded/Ca(OH)2 microparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorhexidine; dentin surfaces; dentinal tubules; microparticles; calcium hydroxide chlorhexidine; dentin surfaces; dentinal tubules; microparticles; calcium hydroxide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Priyadarshini, B.M.; Selvan, S.T.; Narayanan, K.; Fawzy, A.S. Characterization of Chlorhexidine-Loaded Calcium-Hydroxide Microparticles as a Potential Dental Pulp-Capping Material. Bioengineering 2017, 4, 59.

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