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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of Chlorhexidine-Loaded Calcium-Hydroxide Microparticles as a Potential Dental Pulp-Capping Material

1
Discipline of Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, 11 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119083, Singapore
2
Department of Chemistry, Myongji University, Natural Science Campus, 116 Myongji-ro, Cheoin-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 449-728, Korea
3
Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, The Nanos, #04-01, Singapore 138669, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frank Alexis
Bioengineering 2017, 4(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering4030059
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
This study explores the delivery of novel calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] microparticles loaded with chlorhexidine (CHX) for potential dental therapeutic and preventive applications. Herein, we introduce a new approach for drug-delivery to deep dentin-surfaces in the form of drug-loaded microparticles. Unloaded Ca(OH)2 [Ca(OH)2/Blank] and CHX-loaded/Ca(OH)2 microparticles were fabricated by aqueous chemical-precipitation technique. The synthesized-microparticles were characterized in vitro for determination of surface-morphology, crystalline-features and thermal-properties examined by energy-dispersive X-ray scanning and transmission electron-microscopy (EDX-SEM/TEM), Fourier-transform infrared-spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning-calorimetry (DSC). Time-related pH changes, initial antibacterial/biofilm-abilities and cytotoxicity of CHX-loaded/Ca(OH)2 microparticles were evaluated. Microparticles were delivered to dentin-surfaces with subsequent SEM examination of treated dentin-substrates. The in vitro and ex vivo CHX-release profiles were characterized. Ca(OH)2/Blank were hexagonal-shaped with highest z-average diameter whereas CHX-inclusion evidenced micro-metric spheres with distinguishable surface “rounded deposits” and a negative-shift in diameter. CHX:Ca(OH)2/50 mg exhibited maximum encapsulation-efficiency with good antibacterial and cytocompatible properties. SEM examination revealed an intact layer of microparticles on exposed dentin-surfaces with retention of spherical shape and smooth texture. Microparticles loaded on dentin-surfaces showed prolonged release of CHX indicating substantial retention on dentin-substrates. This study validated the inherent-applicability of this novel drug-delivery approach to dentin-surfaces using micro-metric CHX-loaded/Ca(OH)2 microparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorhexidine; dentin surfaces; dentinal tubules; microparticles; calcium hydroxide chlorhexidine; dentin surfaces; dentinal tubules; microparticles; calcium hydroxide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Priyadarshini, B.M.; Selvan, S.T.; Narayanan, K.; Fawzy, A.S. Characterization of Chlorhexidine-Loaded Calcium-Hydroxide Microparticles as a Potential Dental Pulp-Capping Material. Bioengineering 2017, 4, 59.

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