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Commitment of Oral-Derived Stem Cells in Dental and Maxillofacial Applications

1
Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Unit of Experimental Medicine, Marrelli Health, 88900 Crotone, Italy
3
Tecnologica Research Institute, Stem Cells Unit, 88900 Crotone, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
All the authors equally participated to the drafting of this manuscript.
Dent. J. 2018, 6(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6040072
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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PDF [196 KB, uploaded 13 December 2018]
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Abstract

Tissue engineering is based on the interaction between stem cells, biomaterials and factors delivered in biological niches. Oral tissues have been found to be rich in stem cells from different sources: Stem cells from oral cavity are easily harvestable and have shown a great plasticity towards the main lineages, specifically towards bone tissues. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are the most investigated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from dental tissues, however, the oral cavity hosts several other stem cell lineages that have also been reported to be a good alternative in bone tissue engineering. In particular, the newly discovered population of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human periapical inflamed cysts (hPCy-MSCs) have showed very promising properties, including high plasticity toward bone, vascular and neural phenotypes. In this topical review, the authors described the main oral-derived stem cell populations, their most interesting characteristics and their ability towards osteogenic lineage. This review has also investigated the main clinical procedures, reported in the recent literature, involving oral derived-MSCs and biomaterials to get better bone regeneration in dental procedures. The numerous populations of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from oral tissues (DPSCs, SHEDs, PDLSCs, DFSCs, SCAPs, hPCy-MSCs) retain proliferation ability and multipotency; these features are exploited for clinical purposes, including regeneration of injured tissues and local immunomodulation; we reported on the last studies on the proper use of such MSCs within a biological niche and the proper way to storage them for future clinical use. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral-derived stem cells; regenerative medicine; bone tissue; tissue engineering oral-derived stem cells; regenerative medicine; bone tissue; tissue engineering
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Spagnuolo, G.; Codispoti, B.; Marrelli, M.; Rengo, C.; Rengo, S.; Tatullo, M. Commitment of Oral-Derived Stem Cells in Dental and Maxillofacial Applications. Dent. J. 2018, 6, 72.

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