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Open AccessArticle

Mechanism of Coup and Contrecoup Injuries Induced by a Knock-Out Punch

1
Department of Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine, College of Osteopathic Medicine, New York Institute of Technology, Old Westbury Campus, Northern Boulevard, Old Westbury, NY 11568-8000, USA
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering & Computing Sciences, New York Institute of Technology, Old Westbury Campus, Northern Boulevard, Old Westbury, NY 11568-8000, USA
3
NewYork-Presbyterian Queens, Lang Research Center, 56-45 Main Street, Flushing, NY 11355, USA
4
Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032-3784, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Math. Comput. Appl. 2020, 25(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca25020022
Received: 3 March 2020 / Revised: 8 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modelling and Simulation Applied to Head Trauma)
Primary Objective: The interaction of cerebrospinal fluid with the brain parenchyma in an impact scenario is studied. Research Design: A computational fluid-structure interaction model is used to simulate the interaction of cerebrospinal fluid with a comprehensive brain model. Methods and Procedures: The method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics is used to simulate the fluid flow, induced by the impact, simultaneously with finite element analysis to solve the large deformations in the brain model. Main Outcomes and Results: Mechanism of injury resulting in concussion is demonstrated. The locations with the highest stress values on the brain parenchyma are shown. Conclusions: Our simulations found that the damage to the brain resulting from the contrecoup injury is more severe than that resulting from the coup injury. Additionally, we show that the contrecoup injury does not always appear on the side opposite from where impact occurs. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluid-structure interaction; cerebrospinal fluid; comprehensive head model; brain; coup; contrecoup; injury; trauma fluid-structure interaction; cerebrospinal fluid; comprehensive head model; brain; coup; contrecoup; injury; trauma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Toma, M.; Chan-Akeley, R.; Lipari, C.; Kuo, S.-H. Mechanism of Coup and Contrecoup Injuries Induced by a Knock-Out Punch. Math. Comput. Appl. 2020, 25, 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/mca25020022

AMA Style

Toma M, Chan-Akeley R, Lipari C, Kuo S-H. Mechanism of Coup and Contrecoup Injuries Induced by a Knock-Out Punch. Mathematical and Computational Applications. 2020; 25(2):22. https://doi.org/10.3390/mca25020022

Chicago/Turabian Style

Toma, Milan; Chan-Akeley, Rosalyn; Lipari, Christopher; Kuo, Sheng-Han. 2020. "Mechanism of Coup and Contrecoup Injuries Induced by a Knock-Out Punch" Math. Comput. Appl. 25, no. 2: 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/mca25020022

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