To improve carbon efficiency for an urban logistics service system composed of a third-party logistics service provider (3PL) and an e-business enterprise, a low-carbon operation game between them was studied. Considering low carbon technology investment cost and sales expansion effect of low carbon level, profit functions for both players were constituted. Based on their different bargaining capabilities, in total, five types of game scenarios were designed. Through analytical solution, Nash Equilibria under different scenarios were obtained. By analyzing these equilibria, four major propositions were given, in which some key variables and the system performance indexes were compared. Results show that the best system yields could only be achieved under the fully cooperative situation. Limited cooperation only for carbon emission reduction does not benefit the system performance improvement. E-business enterprise-leading game’s performance overtook 3PL-leading ones.
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