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Processes 2018, 6(9), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6090144

Challenges in Nanofluidics—Beyond Navier–Stokes at the Molecular Scale

1,†,* and 2,†,*
1
School of Science and Centre for Molecular and Nanoscale Physics, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia
2
Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia
Both authors contributed to this work, with P.J.D. taking the leading role in writing the manuscript.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport of Fluids in Nanoporous Materials)
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Abstract

The fluid dynamics of macroscopic and microscopic systems is well developed and has been extensively validated. Its extraordinary success makes it tempting to apply Navier–Stokes fluid dynamics without modification to systems of ever decreasing dimensions as studies of nanofluidics become more prevalent. However, this can result in serious error. In this paper, we discuss several ways in which nanoconfined fluid flow differs from macroscopic flow. We give particular attention to several topics that have recently received attention in the literature: slip, spin angular momentum coupling, nonlocal stress response and density inhomogeneity. In principle, all of these effects can now be accurately modelled using validated theories. Although the basic principles are now fairly well understood, much work remains to be done in their application. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanofluidics; molecular dynamics; hydrodynamics; slip; spin-coupling; non-local constitutive equations nanofluidics; molecular dynamics; hydrodynamics; slip; spin-coupling; non-local constitutive equations
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Daivis, P.J.; Todd, B.D. Challenges in Nanofluidics—Beyond Navier–Stokes at the Molecular Scale. Processes 2018, 6, 144.

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